dd


SYNOPSIS

       dd [OPERAND]...
       dd OPTION


DESCRIPTION

       Copy a file, converting and formatting according to the operands.

       bs=BYTES
              read and write up to BYTES bytes at a time

       cbs=BYTES
              convert BYTES bytes at a time

       conv=CONVS
              convert the file as per the comma separated symbol list

       count=N
              copy only N input blocks

       ibs=BYTES
              read up to BYTES bytes at a time (default: 512)

       if=FILE
              read from FILE instead of stdin

       iflag=FLAGS
              read as per the comma separated symbol list

       obs=BYTES
              write BYTES bytes at a time (default: 512)

       of=FILE
              write to FILE instead of stdout

       oflag=FLAGS
              write as per the comma separated symbol list

       seek=N skip N obs-sized blocks at start of output

       skip=N skip N ibs-sized blocks at start of input

       status=LEVEL
              The  LEVEL  of information to print to stderr; 'none' suppresses
              everything but error messages,  'noxfer'  suppresses  the  final
              transfer  statistics, 'progress' shows periodic transfer statis-
              tics

       N and BYTES may be followed by the following multiplicative suffixes: c
       =1, w =2, b =512, kB =1000, K =1024, MB =1000*1000, M =1024*1024, xM =M
       GB =1000*1000*1000, G =1024*1024*1024, and so on for T, P, E, Z, Y.

       Each CONV symbol may be:
       ucase  change lower case to upper case

       sparse try to seek rather than write the output for NUL input blocks

       swab   swap every pair of input bytes

       sync   pad every input block with NULs  to  ibs-size;  when  used  with
              block or unblock, pad with spaces rather than NULs

       excl   fail if the output file already exists

       nocreat
              do not create the output file

       notrunc
              do not truncate the output file

       noerror
              continue after read errors

       fdatasync
              physically write output file data before finishing

       fsync  likewise, but also write metadata

       Each FLAG symbol may be:

       append append  mode  (makes  sense  only  for output; conv=notrunc sug-
              gested)

       direct use direct I/O for data

       directory
              fail unless a directory

       dsync  use synchronized I/O for data

       sync   likewise, but also for metadata

       fullblock
              accumulate full blocks of input (iflag only)

       nonblock
              use non-blocking I/O

       noatime
              do not update access time

       nocache
              discard cached data

       noctty do not assign controlling terminal from file
       tistics to standard error and then resume copying.

              $ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/null& pid=$!
              $ kill -USR1 $pid; sleep 1; kill $pid

              18335302+0  records  in  18335302+0 records out 9387674624 bytes
              (9.4 GB) copied, 34.6279 seconds, 271 MB/s

       Options are:

       --help display this help and exit

       --version
              output version information and exit

       GNU  coreutils  online  help:  <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
       Report dd translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>


AUTHOR

       Written by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, and Stuart Kemp.


COPYRIGHT

       Copyright  (C) 2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU
       GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
       This is free software: you are free  to  change  and  redistribute  it.
       There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.


SEE ALSO

       The  full  documentation  for dd is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If
       the info and dd programs are properly installed at your site, the  com-
       mand

              info coreutils 'dd invocation'

       should give you access to the complete manual.


GNU coreutils 8.22 November 2016 DD(1)



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