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SYNOPSIS

       mailx [-BDdEFintv~] [-s subject] [-a attachment ] [-c cc-addr] [-b bcc-
              addr] [-r from-addr] [-h hops] [-A account] [-S vari-
              able[=value]] to-addr . . .
       mailx [-BDdeEHiInNRv~] [-T name] [-A account] [-S variable[=value]] -f
              [name]
       mailx [-BDdeEinNRv~] [-A account] [-S variable[=value]] [-u user]


DESCRIPTION

       Mailx is an intelligent mail processing system,  which  has  a  command
       syntax  reminiscent  of  ed(1)  with lines replaced by messages.  It is
       based on Berkeley Mail 8.1, is intended to provide the functionality of
       the  POSIX  mailx  command, and offers extensions for MIME, IMAP, POP3,
       SMTP, and S/MIME.  Mailx provides  enhanced  features  for  interactive
       use,  such  as  caching  and  disconnected  operation for IMAP, message
       threading, scoring, and filtering.  It is also usable as a  mail  batch
       language, both for sending and receiving mail.

       The following options are accepted:

       -A name
              Executes  an  account  command  (see  below)  for name after the
              startup files have been read.

       -a file
              Attach the given file to the message.

       -B     Make standard input and standard output line-buffered.

       -b address
              Send blind carbon copies to list.  List should be a  comma-sepa-
              rated list of names.

       -c address
              Send carbon copies to list of users.

       -D     Start  in disconnected mode; see the description for the discon-
              nected variable option.

       -d     Enables debugging messages and disables the actual  delivery  of
              messages.  Unlike -v, this option is intended for mailx develop-
              ment only.

       -e     Just check if mail is present in the system  mailbox.   If  yes,
              return an exit status of zero, else, a non-zero value.

       -E     If an outgoing message does not contain any text in its first or
              only message part, do not  send  it  but  discard  it  silently,
              effectively   setting  the  skipemptybody  variable  at  program
              startup.  This is  useful  for  sending  messages  from  scripts
              started by cron(8).


       -i     Ignore tty interrupt signals.  This is particularly useful  when
              using mailx on noisy phone lines.

       -I     Shows  the  `Newsgroup:'  or  `Article-Id:' fields in the header
              summary.  Only applicable in combination with -f.

       -n     Inhibits reading /etc/mail.rc upon startup.  This option  should
              be activated for mailx scripts that are invoked on more than one
              machine, because the contents of that file  may  differ  between
              them.

       -N     Inhibits  the  initial  display  of message headers when reading
              mail or editing a mail folder.

       -q file
              Start the message with the contents of the specified file.   May
              be given in send mode only.

       -r address
              Sets  the From address. Overrides any from variable specified in
              environment or startup files.  Tilde escapes are disabled.   The
              -r  address options are passed to the mail transfer agent unless
              SMTP is used.  This option exists for compatibility only; it  is
              recommended to set the from variable directly instead.

       -R     Opens any folders read-only.

       -s subject
              Specify  subject  on command line (only the first argument after
              the -s flag is used as a subject; be careful to  quote  subjects
              containing spaces).

       -S variable[=value]
              Sets  the  internal  option  variable  and,  in case of a string
              option, assigns value to it.  Note, that when setting from vari-
              able,  domain  name of host is automatically added if value does
              not contain any.  If you want to enter from address with owner's
              name,  you can use, for example, following format: -S "from=Sys-
              tem User <DoNotReply>"

       -T name
              Writes the `Message-Id:' and `Article-Id:' header fields of each
              message  read  in  the file name.  Implies -I.  Compressed files
              are handled as described for the folder command below.

       -t     The message to be sent is expected to contain a  message  header
              with  `To:',  `Cc:',  or  `Bcc:'  fields  giving its recipients.
              Recipients specified on the command line are ignored.

       -u user
              Reads the mailbox of the given user name.

       when composing letters.

   Reading mail
       In normal usage mailx is given no arguments and checks the user's  mail
       out  of the post office, then prints out a one line header of each mes-
       sage found.  The current message is initially the first  message  (num-
       bered 1) and can be printed using the print command which can be abbre-
       viated `p').  The user can move among the messages  much  as  he  moves
       between  lines in ed(1), with the commands `+' and `-' moving backwards
       and forwards, and simple numbers.

   Disposing of mail
       After examining a message the user can delete `d') the message or reply
       `r') to it.  Deletion causes the mailx program to forget about the mes-
       sage.  This is not irreversible; the message can be undeleted  `u')  by
       giving  its  number,  or the mailx session can be aborted by giving the
       exit `x') command.  Deleted messages will, however,  usually  disappear
       never to be seen again.

   Specifying messages
       Commands  such  as print and delete can be given a list of message num-
       bers as arguments to apply to a  number  of  messages  at  once.   Thus
       `delete  1 2' deletes messages 1 and 2, while `delete 1-5' deletes mes-
       sages 1 through 5.  In sorted or threaded mode (see the sort and thread
       commands),  `delete  1-5' deletes the messages that are located between
       (and including) messages 1 through 5 in the sorted/threaded  order,  as
       shown  in  the  header  summary.   The  following special message names
       exist:

       :n     All new messages.

       :o     All old messages (any not in state read or new).

       :u     All unread messages.

       :d     All deleted messages (for the undelete command).

       :r     All read messages.

       :f     All `flagged' messages.

       :a     All answered messages (cf. the markanswered variable).

       :t     All messages marked as draft.

       :k     All `killed' messages.

       :j     All messages classified as junk.

       .      The current message.

       ;      The message that was previously the current message.
       ^      The  first  undeleted  message, or the first deleted message for
              the undelete command.  In sorted/threaded mode, the  first  such
              message in the sorted/threaded order.

       $      The  last message.  In sorted/threaded mode, the last message in
              the sorted/threaded order.

       &x     In threaded mode, selects the message addressed with x, where  x
              is  any  other  message specification, and all messages from the
              thread that begins at it.  Otherwise, it is identical to x.   If
              x  is  omitted, the thread beginning with the current message is
              selected.

       *      All messages.

       `      All messages that were included in the message list for the pre-
              vious command.

       /string
              All  messages  that  contain  string  in the subject field (case
              ignored).  See also the searchheaders variable.   If  string  is
              empty,  the  string from the previous specification of that type
              is used again.

       address
              All messages from address.  By default, this is a case-sensitive
              search  for  the complete email address.  If the allnet variable
              is set, only the local part of the addresses  is  evaluated  for
              the  comparison.   Otherwise  if the showname variable is set, a
              case-sensitive search for the complete real name of a sender  is
              performed.  The IMAP-style (from address) expression can be used
              instead if substring matches are desired.

       (criterion)
              All messages that satisfy the given IMAP-style SEARCH criterion.
              This addressing mode is available with all types of folders; for
              folders not located on IMAP servers, or for  servers  unable  to
              execute  the  SEARCH  command,  mailx  will  perform  the search
              locally.  Strings must be enclosed by double quotes `"' in their
              entirety  if they contain white space or parentheses; within the
              quotes, only backslash `\' is recognized as an escape character.
              All  string searches are case-insensitive.  When the description
              indicates that the `envelope' representation of an address field
              is  used,  this  means that the search string is checked against
              both a list constructed as

              ("real name" "source-route" "local-part" "domain-part")

              for each address, and the addresses without real names from  the
              respective header field.  Criteria can be nested using parenthe-
              ses.


       (bcc string)
              All messages that contain string in the  `envelope'  representa-
              tion of the Bcc: field.

       (cc string)
              All  messages  that contain string in the `envelope' representa-
              tion of the Cc: field.

       (from string)
              All messages that contain string in the  `envelope'  representa-
              tion of the From: field.

       (subject string)
              All messages that contain string in the Subject: field.

       (to string)
              All  messages  that contain string in the `envelope' representa-
              tion of the To: field.

       (header name string)
              All messages that contain string in the specified Name: field.

       (body string)
              All messages that contain string in their body.

       (text string)
              All messages that contain string in their header or body.

       (larger size)
              All messages that are larger than size (in bytes).

       (smaller size)
              All messages that are smaller than size (in bytes).

       (before date)
              All messages that were received before date; date must be in the
              form d[d]-mon-yyyy, where d[d] is the day of the month as one or
              two digits, mon is the name of the month--one of  `Jan',  `Feb',
              `Mar',  `Apr',  `May', `Jun', `Jul', `Aug', `Sep', `Oct', `Nov',
              or  `Dec',  and  yyyy  is  the  year  as   four   digits;   e.g.
              "30-Aug-2004".

       (on date)
              All messages that were received on the specified date.

       (since date)
              All messages that were received since the specified date.

       (sentbefore date)
              All messages that were sent on the specified date.


   Replying to or originating mail
       The reply command can be used to set up a response to a message,  send-
       ing  it  back  to  the  person who it was from.  Text the user types in
       then, up to an end-of-file, defines the contents of the message.  While
       the  user is composing a message, mailx treats lines beginning with the
       character `~' specially.  For instance, typing `~m' (alone on  a  line)
       will place a copy of the current message into the response right shift-
       ing it by a tabstop (see indentprefix variable, below).  Other  escapes
       will  set  up subject fields, add and delete recipients to the message,
       attach files to it and allow the user to escape to an editor to  revise
       the  message  or  to  a shell to run some commands.  (These options are
       given in the summary below.)

   Ending a mail processing session
       The user can end a mailx session with the quit (`q') command.  Messages
       which  have  been  examined go to the user's mbox file unless they have
       been deleted in which case they are discarded.  Unexamined messages  go
       back to the post office.  (See the -f option above).

   Personal and systemwide distribution lists
       It  is  also  possible to create a personal distribution lists so that,
       for instance, the user can send mail to `cohorts' and have it go  to  a
       group of people.  Such lists can be defined by placing a line like

               alias cohorts bill ozalp jkf mark kridle@ucbcory

       in  the file .mailrc in the user's home directory.  The current list of
       such aliases can be displayed with the alias command in mailx.   System
       wide  distribution  lists  can  be created by editing /etc/aliases, see
       aliases(5) and sendmail(8); these are kept in a different  syntax.   In
       mail  the user sends, personal aliases will be expanded in mail sent to
       others so that they will be able to reply to  the  recipients.   System
       wide  aliases  are  not  expanded  when the mail is sent, but any reply
       returned to the machine will have the system wide alias expanded as all
       mail goes through sendmail.

   Recipient address specifications
       If  the expandaddr option is not set (the default), recipient addresses
       must be names of local mailboxes or Internet mail addresses.

       If the expandaddr option is set, the following  rules  apply:  When  an
       address  is  used to name a recipient (in any of To, Cc, or Bcc), names
       of local mail folders and pipes to external commands can also be speci-
       fied;  the  message  text  is then written to them.  The rules are: Any
       name which starts with a `|' character specifies a  pipe,  the  command
       string  following  the  `|'  is executed and the message is sent to its
       standard input; any other  name  which  contains  a  `@'  character  is
       treated as a mail address; any other name which starts with a `+' char-
       acter specifies a folder name; any other  name  which  contains  a  `/'
       character  but  no `!'  or `%' character before also specifies a folder
       name; what remains is treated as a mail  address.   Compressed  folders

       where type/subtype are strings describing the file contents, and exten-
       sion  is  the part of a filename starting after the last dot.  Any line
       not immediately beginning  with  an  ASCII  alphabetical  character  is
       ignored  by  mailx.  If there is a match with the extension of the file
       to attach, the given type/subtype pair is used.  Otherwise, or  if  the
       filename  has  no  extension,  the content types text/plain or applica-
       tion/octet-stream are used, the first for text  or  international  text
       files,  the  second  for  any  file that contains formatting characters
       other than newlines and horizontal tabulators.

   Character sets
       Mailx normally detects the character set  of  the  terminal  using  the
       LC_CTYPE  locale  setting.  If the locale cannot be used appropriately,
       the ttycharset variable should be set to  provide  an  explicit  value.
       When  reading messages, their text is converted to the terminal charac-
       ter set if possible.  Unprintable characters and illegal byte sequences
       are  detected and replaced by Unicode substitute characters or question
       marks unless the print-all-chars is set at initialization time.

       The character set for outgoing messages is not necessarily the same  as
       the  one  used  on  the terminal.  If an outgoing text message contains
       characters not representable in US-ASCII, the character set being  used
       must be declared within its header.  Permissible values can be declared
       using the sendcharsets variable, separated by commas; mailx tries  each
       of the values in order and uses the first appropriate one.  If the mes-
       sage contains characters that cannot be represented in any of the given
       character  sets,  the  message  will  not be sent, and its text will be
       saved to the `dead.letter' file.  Messages that contain NUL  bytes  are
       not converted.

       Outgoing  attachments  are  converted  if  they are plain text.  If the
       sendcharsets variable contains more than one character set name, the ~@
       tilde escape will ask for the character sets for individual attachments
       if it is invoked without arguments.

       Best results are usually achieved when mailx is run in a  UTF-8  locale
       on  a  UTF-8  capable terminal.  In this setup, characters from various
       countries can be displayed, while it is still possible to use more sim-
       ple  character  sets  for  sending to retain maximum compatibility with
       older mail clients.

   Commands
       Each command is typed on a line by itself, and may take arguments  fol-
       lowing the command word.  The command need not be typed in its entirety
       - the first command which matches the typed prefix is used.   For  com-
       mands  which  take  message  lists  as arguments, if no message list is
       given, then the next message  forward  which  satisfies  the  command's
       requirements  is used.  If there are no messages forward of the current
       message, the search proceeds backwards, and if there are no  good  mes-
       sages at all, mailx types `applicable messages' and aborts the command.
       If the command begins with a # sign, the line is ignored.

       o      An unquoted backslash at the end of a command line is  discarded
              and the next line continues the command.

       Filenames,  where  expected, are subjected to the following transforma-
       tions, in sequence:

       o      If the filename begins with  an  unquoted  plus  sign,  and  the
              folder  variable  is  defined, the plus sign will be replaced by
              the value of the folder variable followed by  a  slash.  If  the
              folder variable is unset or is set to null, the filename will be
              unchanged.

       o      Shell word expansions are applied to the filename.  If more than
              a single pathname results from this expansion and the command is
              expecting one file, an error results.

       The following commands are provided:

       -      Print out the preceding message.  If given a numeric argument n,
              goes to the n'th previous message and prints it.

       ?      Prints a brief summary of commands.

       !      Executes the shell (see sh(1) and csh(1)) command which follows.

       |      A synonym for the pipe command.

       account
              (ac)  Creates, selects or lists an email account.  An account is
              formed by a group of commands, primarily of those to  set  vari-
              ables.   With  two  arguments, of which the second is a `{', the
              first argument gives an account name, and  the  following  lines
              create  a  group  of commands for that account until a line con-
              taining a single `}' appears.  With one argument, the previously
              created  group of commands for the account name is executed, and
              a folder command is executed for the system mailbox or inbox  of
              that account.  Without arguments, the list of accounts and their
              contents are printed.  As an example,

                  account myisp {
                      set folder=imaps://mylogin@imap.myisp.example
                      set record=+Sent
                      set from="myname@myisp.example (My Name)"
                      set smtp=smtp.myisp.example
                  }

              creates an account named `myisp' which can later be selected  by
              specifying `account myisp'.

       alias  (a) With no arguments, prints out all currently-defined aliases.
              With one argument, prints out that alias.  With  more  than  one
              system;  it just causes messages to be marked in the header sum-
              mary, and makes them specially addressable.

       cache  Only applicable to cached IMAP mailboxes; takes a  message  list
              and reads the specified messages into the IMAP cache.

       call   Calls a macro (see the define command).

       cd     Same as chdir.

       certsave
              Only applicable to S/MIME signed messages.  Takes a message list
              and a file name and saves the certificates contained within  the
              message  signatures to the named file in both human-readable and
              PEM  format.   The  certificates  can  later  be  used  to  send
              encrypted  messages  to the messages' originators by setting the
              smime-encrypt-user@host variable.

       chdir  (ch) Changes the user's working directory to that specified,  if
              given.   If  no  directory  is given, then changes to the user's
              login directory.

       classify
              (cl) Takes a list of messages and examines  their  contents  for
              characteristics of junk mail using Bayesian filtering.  Messages
              considered to be junk are then marked as such.   The  junk  mail
              database is not changed.

       collapse
              (coll)  Only  applicable to threaded mode.  Takes a message list
              and makes all replies to these messages invisible in header sum-
              maries, unless they are in state `new'.

       connect
              (conn)  If  operating  in  disconnected mode on an IMAP mailbox,
              switch to online mode and  connect  to  the  mail  server  while
              retaining  the  mailbox status.  See the description of the dis-
              connected variable for more information.

       copy   (c) The copy command does the same thing that save does,  except
              that  it  does  not mark the messages it is used on for deletion
              when the user quits.  Compressed files and  IMAP  mailboxes  are
              handled as described for the folder command.

       Copy   (C)  Similar  to  copy,  but  saves the messages in a file named
              after the local part of the sender address of the first message.

       decrypt
              (dec) For unencrypted messages, this  command  is  identical  to
              copy.   Encrypted messages are first decrypted, if possible, and
              then copied.

              Once defined, a macro can be explicitly invoked using  the  call
              command, or can be implicitly invoked by setting the folder-hook
              or folder-hook-fullname variables.

       defines
              Prints the currently defined macros including their contents.

       delete (d) Takes a list of messages as argument and marks them  all  as
              deleted.   Deleted  messages will not be saved in mbox, nor will
              they be available for most other commands.

       discard
              Same as ignore.

       disconnect
              (disco) If operating in online mode on an IMAP  mailbox,  switch
              to  disconnected  mode  while retaining the mailbox status.  See
              the description of the disconnected variable for  more  informa-
              tion.   A  list of messages may optionally be given as argument;
              the respective messages are then read into the cache before  the
              connection  is  closed.  Thus `disco *' makes the entire current
              mailbox available for disconnected use.

       dp or dt
              Deletes the current message and prints  the  next  message.   If
              there is no next message, mailx says `at EOF'.

       draft  Takes  a  message  list and marks each message as a draft.  This
              mark has no technical meaning in the mail system; it just causes
              messages to be marked in the header summary, and makes them spe-
              cially addressable.

       echo   Echoes its arguments, resolving special names as documented  for
              the  folder  command.   The  escape  sequences `\a', `\b', `\c',
              `\f', `\n', `\r', `\t', `\v', `\\', and `\0num' are  interpreted
              as with the echo(1) command.

       edit   (e)  Takes a list of messages and points the text editor at each
              one in turn.  Modified contents are discarded unless the  write-
              backedited variable is set.

       else   Marks the end of the then-part of an if statement and the begin-
              ning of the part to take effect  if  the  condition  of  the  if
              statement is false.

       endif  Marks the end of an if statement.

       exit   (ex or x) Effects an immediate return to the Shell without modi-
              fying the user's system mailbox, his mbox file, or his edit file
              in -f.

       file   (fi) The same as folder.
       folder (fold) The folder command switches to a new mail file or folder.
              With no arguments, it tells the user which file he is  currently
              reading.   If  an  argument  is given, it will write out changes
              (such as deletions) the user has made in the  current  file  and
              read  in  the new file.  Some special conventions are recognized
              for the name.  # means the previous file, % means  the  invoking
              user's  system  mailbox,  %user  means  user's system mailbox, &
              means the invoking user's mbox file, and +file means a  file  in
              the  folder  directory.  %:filespec expands to the same value as
              filespec, but the file is handled as a system mailbox  e. g.  by
              the  mbox  and  save  commands.   If the name matches one of the
              strings defined with the shortcut command, it is replaced by its
              long  form  and expanded.  If the name ends with .gz or .bz2, it
              is treated as compressed with gzip(1) or bzip2(1), respectively.
              Likewise, if name does not exist, but either name.gz or name.bz2
              exists, the compressed file is used.  If name refers to a direc-
              tory  with  the  subdirectories  `tmp',  `new', and `cur', it is
              treated as a folder in maildir format.  A name of the form

                     protocol://[user@]host[:port][/file]

              is taken as an Internet mailbox  specification.   The  supported
              protocols  are  currently  imap  (IMAP  v4r1),  imaps (IMAP with
              SSL/TLS encryption), pop3 (POP3), and pop3s (POP3  with  SSL/TLS
              encryption).  If user contains special characters, in particular
              `/' or `%', they must be escaped in URL notation,  as  `%2F'  or
              `%25'.   The  optional  file part applies to IMAP only; if it is
              omitted, the default `INBOX' is used.  If mailx is connected  to
              an  IMAP server, a name of the form @mailbox refers to the mail-
              box on that server.  If the `folder' variable refers to an  IMAP
              account,  the  special  name  `%'  selects  the  `INBOX' on that
              account.

       Followup
              (F) Similar to Respond, but saves the message in  a  file  named
              after the local part of the first recipient's address.

       followup
              (fo)  Similar  to respond, but saves the message in a file named
              after the local part of the first recipient's address.

       followupall
              Similar to followup, but responds to all  recipients  regardless
              of the flipr and Replyall variables.

       followupsender
              Similar  to Followup, but responds to the sender only regardless
              of the flipr and Replyall variables.

       forward
              (fwd) Takes a message and the address of a  recipient  and  for-
              wards  the  message to him.  The text of the original message is

       fwdignore
              Specifies which header fields are to be ignored with the forward
              command.  This command has no effect when the forward-as-attach-
              ment option is set.

       fwdretain
              Specifies  which  header fields are to be retained with the for-
              ward command.  fwdretain overrides fwdignore.  This command  has
              no effect when the forward-as-attachment option is set.

       good   (go) Takes a list of messages and marks all of them as not being
              junk mail.  Data from these messages is then inserted  into  the
              junk mail database for future classification.

       headers
              (h)  Lists  the current range of headers, which is an 18-message
              group.  If a `+' argument is given,  then  the  next  18-message
              group  is  printed, and if a `-' argument is given, the previous
              18-message group is printed.

       help   A synonym for ?.

       hold   (ho, also preserve) Takes a message list and marks each  message
              therein  to  be saved in the user's system mailbox instead of in
              mbox.  Does not override the  delete  command.   mailx  deviates
              from  the  POSIX standard with this command, as a `next' command
              issued after `hold' will display the following message, not  the
              current one.

       if     Commands  in mailx's startup files can be executed conditionally
              depending on whether the user is sending or receiving mail  with
              the if command.  For example:

                      if receive
                              commands . . .
                      endif

              An else form is also available:

                      if receive
                              commands . . .
                      else
                              commands . . .
                      endif

              Note  that  the  only  allowed conditions are receive, send, and
              term (execute command if standard input is a tty).

       ignore Add the list of header fields named to the ignored list.  Header
              fields in the ignore list are not printed on the terminal when a
              message is printed.  This command is very handy for  suppression
              of  certain machine-generated header fields.  The Type and Print
                     prints  the  quotas  that  apply to the mailbox.  Not all
                     IMAP servers support this command.

              namespace
                     Takes no arguments and prints  the  Personal  Namespaces,
                     the  Other  User's Namespaces, and the Shared Namespaces.
                     Each namespace type is printed in parentheses;  if  there
                     are multiple namespaces of the same type, inner parenthe-
                     ses separate them.  For each namespace, a namespace  pre-
                     fix  and  a  hierarchy separator is listed.  Not all IMAP
                     servers support this command.

       inc    Same as newmail.

       junk   (j) Takes a list of messages and marks all of them as junk mail.
              Data  from  these  messages  is then inserted into the junk mail
              database for future classification.

       kill   (k) Takes a list of messages and `kills' them.  Killed  messages
              are not printed in header summaries, and are ignored by the next
              command.  The kill command also sets the score of  the  messages
              to negative infinity, so that subsequent score commands will not
              unkill them again.  Killing is only effective  for  the  current
              session on a folder; when it is quit, all messages are automati-
              cally unkilled.

       list   Prints the names of all available commands.

       Mail   (M) Similar to mail, but saves the message in a file named after
              the local part of the first recipient's address.

       mail   (m)  Takes  as argument login names and distribution group names
              and sends mail to those people.

       mbox   Indicate that a list of messages be sent to mbox in  the  user's
              home  directory  when mailx is quit.  This is the default action
              for messages if unless the hold option is set.   mailx  deviates
              from  the  POSIX standard with this command, as a `next' command
              issued after `mbox' will display the following message, not  the
              current one.

       move   (mv) Acts like copy, but marks the messages for deletion if they
              were transferred successfully.

       Move   (Mv) Similar to move, but moves the messages  to  a  file  named
              after the local part of the sender address of the first message.

       newmail
              Checks for new mail in the current folder without committing any
              changes before.  If new mail is present, a message  is  printed.
              If  the  header variable is set, the headers of each new message
              are also printed.
              parts of MIME multipart/alternative messages.

       pipe   (pi) Takes a message list and a shell command and pipes the mes-
              sages through the command.  Without  an  argument,  the  current
              message  is piped through the command given by the cmd variable.
              If the  page variable is set, every message  is  followed  by  a
              formfeed character.

       preserve
              (pre) A synonym for hold.

       Print  (P) Like print but also prints out ignored header fields and all
              parts of MIME multipart/alternative messages.  See  also  print,
              ignore, and retain.

       print  (p)  Takes  a  message  list  and  types out each message on the
              user's terminal.  If the message is a  MIME  multipart  message,
              all  parts with a content type of `text' or `message' are shown,
              the other are hidden except for  their  headers.   Messages  are
              decrypted  and converted to the terminal character set if neces-
              sary.

       probability
              (prob) For each word given as argument, the contents of its junk
              mail database entry are printed.

       quit   (q)  Terminates  the session, saving all undeleted, unsaved mes-
              sages in the user's mbox file in his login directory, preserving
              all messages marked with hold or preserve or never referenced in
              his system mailbox, and removing all  other  messages  from  his
              system mailbox.  If new mail has arrived during the session, the
              message `You have new mail' is given.  If given while editing  a
              mailbox  file with the -f flag, then the edit file is rewritten.
              A return to the Shell is effected, unless the  rewrite  of  edit
              file fails, in which case the user can escape with the exit com-
              mand.

       redirect
              (red) Same as resend.

       Redirect
              (Red) Same as Resend.

       remove (rem) Removes the named folders.  The user is asked for  confir-
              mation in interactive mode.

       rename (ren)  Takes the name of an existing folder and the name for the
              new folder and renames the first to the second one.  Both  fold-
              ers  must be of the same type and must be located on the current
              server for IMAP.

       Reply  (R) Reply to originator.  Does not reply to other recipients  of
       Resend Like  resend,  but does not add any header lines.  This is not a
              way to hide the sender's identity, but useful for sending a mes-
              sage again to the same recipients.

       resend Takes  a list of messages and a user name and sends each message
              to the named user.  `Resent-From:' and related header fields are
              prepended to the new copy of the message.

       Respond
              Same as Reply.

       respond
              Same as reply.

       respondall
              Same as replyall.

       respondsender
              Same as replysender.

       retain Add  the list of header fields named to the retained list.  Only
              the header fields in the retain list are shown on  the  terminal
              when  a  message  is  printed.  All other header fields are sup-
              pressed.  The Type and Print commands can be  used  to  print  a
              message  in  its  entirety.  If retain is executed with no argu-
              ments, it lists the current set of retained fields.

       Save   (S) Similar to save, but saves the  messages  in  a  file  named
              after  the local part of the sender of the first message instead
              of taking a filename argument.

       save   (s) Takes a message list and a filename and appends each message
              in  turn  to  the end of the file.  If no filename is given, the
              mbox file is used.  The filename in quotes, followed by the line
              count  and character count is echoed on the user's terminal.  If
              editing a system mailbox, the messages are marked for  deletion.
              Compressed files and IMAP mailboxes are handled as described for
              the -f command line option above.

       savediscard
              Same as saveignore.

       saveignore
              Saveignore is to save what ignore is to print and type.   Header
              fields  thus  marked  are  filtered out when saving a message by
              save or when automatically saving to mbox.  This command  should
              only be applied to header fields that do not contain information
              needed to decode the message, as MIME  content  fields  do.   If
              saving  messages  on  an  IMAP account, ignoring fields makes it
              impossible to copy the data directly on the server, thus  opera-
              tion usually becomes much slower.

              refer to the currently opened instance of a folder.

       set    (se) With  no  arguments,  prints  all  variable  values,  piped
              through  the  pager  if  the  output does not fit on the screen.
              Otherwise, sets option.  Arguments are of the form  option=value
              (no  space before or after =) or option.  Quotation marks may be
              placed around any part of  the  assignment  statement  to  quote
              blanks  or  tabs,  i.e. `set indentprefix="->"'.  If an argument
              begins with no, as in `set nosave', the effect is  the  same  as
              invoking  the unset command with the remaining part of the vari-
              able (`unset save').

       seen   Takes a message list and marks all messages as having been read.

       shell  (sh) Invokes an interactive version of the shell.

       shortcut
              Defines a  shortcut  name  and  its  string  for  expansion,  as
              described  for the folder command.  With no arguments, a list of
              defined shortcuts is printed.

       show   (Sh) Like print, but performs neither MIME decoding nor  decryp-
              tion so that the raw message text is shown.

       size   Takes  a  message  list and prints out the size in characters of
              each message.

       sort   Create a sorted representation of the current folder, and change
              the  next  command and the addressing modes such that they refer
              to messages in the sorted order.  Message numbers are  the  same
              as  in  regular  mode.   If the header variable is set, a header
              summary in the new order is also printed.  Possible sorting cri-
              teria are:

              date   Sort  the messages by their `Date:' field, that is by the
                     time they were sent.

              from   Sort messages by the value of their `From:'  field,  that
                     is  by  the address of the sender.  If the showname vari-
                     able is set, the sender's real name (if any) is used.

              size   Sort the messages by their size.

              score  Sort the messages by their score.

              status Sort the messages by their  message  status  (new,  read,
                     old, etc.).

              subject
                     Sort the messages by their subject.

              thread Create a threaded order, as with the thread command.
              Message numbers are the same as  in  unthreaded  mode.   If  the
              header  variable  is  set, a header summary in threaded order is
              also printed.

       top    Takes a message list and prints the top few lines of each.   The
              number  of  lines printed is controlled by the variable toplines
              and defaults to five.

       touch  Takes a message list and marks the messages for  saving  in  the
              mbox  file.   mailx  deviates  from the POSIX standard with this
              command, as a `next' command issued after  `mbox'  will  display
              the following message, not the current one.

       Type   (T) Identical to the Print command.

       type   (t) A synonym for print.

       unalias
              Takes a list of names defined by alias commands and discards the
              remembered groups of users.  The group names no longer have  any
              significance.

       unanswered
              Takes  a  message list and marks each message as not having been
              answered.

       uncollapse
              (unc) Only applicable to threaded mode.  Takes  a  message  list
              and  makes  the  message and all replies to it visible in header
              summaries again.  When a message becomes the current message, it
              is  automatically  made  visible.  Also when a message with col-
              lapsed replies is printed, all of these are automatically uncol-
              lapsed.

       undef  Undefines each of the named macros.  It is not an error to use a
              name that does not  belong  to  one  of  the  currently  defined
              macros.

       undelete
              (u)  Takes  a  message  list and marks each message as not being
              deleted.

       undraft
              Takes a message list and marks each message as a draft.

       unflag Takes a message  list  and  marks  each  message  as  not  being
              `flagged'.

       unfwdignore
              Removes  the  header field names from the list of ignored fields
              for the forward command.

              score of the messages to 0.

       Unread Same as unread.

       unread (U) Takes a message list and marks each message  as  not  having
              been read.

       unretain
              Removes the header field names from the list of retained fields.

       unsaveignore
              Removes  the  header field names from the list of ignored fields
              for saving.

       unsaveretain
              Removes the header field names from the list of retained  fields
              for saving.

       unset  Takes  a list of option names and discards their remembered val-
              ues; the inverse of set.

       unshortcut
              Deletes the shortcut names given as arguments.

       unsort Disable sorted or threaded mode (see the sort  and  thread  com-
              mands),  return to normal message order and, if the header vari-
              able is set, print a header summary.

       unthread
              (unth) Same as unsort.

       verify (verif) Takes a message list and verifies each  message.   If  a
              message  is not an S/MIME signed message, verification will fail
              for it.  The verification process  checks  if  the  message  was
              signed  using a valid certificate, if the message sender's email
              address matches one of those contained within  the  certificate,
              and if the message content has been altered.

       visual (v)  Takes a message list and invokes the display editor on each
              message.  Modified contents  are  discarded  unless  the  write-
              backedited variable is set.

       write  (w)  For  conventional messages, the body without all headers is
              written.  The output is decrypted and converted  to  its  native
              format,  if  necessary.   If the output file exists, the text is
              appended.--If a message is in MIME multipart format,  its  first
              part  is  written to the specified file as for conventional mes-
              sages, and the user is asked for a filename to save  each  other
              part;  if  the  contents  of the first part are not to be saved,
              `write /dev/null' can be used.  For the  second  and  subsequent
              parts,  if  the  filename given starts with a `|' character, the
              part is piped through the remainder of the filename  interpreted
              dow is calculated in relation to the current position.  A number
              without a prefix specifies an absolute window number, and a  `$'
              lets mailx scroll to the last window of messages.

       Z      Similar  to  z,  but scrolls to the next or previous window that
              contains at least one new or `flagged' message.

   Tilde escapes
       Here is a summary of the tilde escapes, which are used  when  composing
       messages  to  perform special functions.  Tilde escapes are only recog-
       nized at the beginning of lines.  The name `tilde escape'  is  somewhat
       of  a  misnomer  since  the  actual  escape character can be set by the
       option escape.

       ~!command
              Execute the indicated shell command, then return to the message.

       ~.     Same effect as typing the end-of-file character.

       ~<filename
              Identical to ~r.

       ~<!command
              Command is executed using the shell.   Its  standard  output  is
              inserted into the message.

       ~@ [filename . . . ]
              With  no  arguments,  edit the attachment list.  First, the user
              can edit all existing attachment data.  If an attachment's  file
              name  is  left  empty, that attachment is deleted from the list.
              When the end of the attachment list is reached, mailx  will  ask
              for  further attachments, until an empty file name is given.  If
              filename arguments are specified, all of them  are  appended  to
              the  end  of the attachment list.  Filenames which contain white
              space can only be specified with the first method  (no  filename
              arguments).

       ~A     Inserts  the  string contained in the Sign variable (same as `~i
              Sign').  The escape sequences `\t' (tabulator)  and  `\n'  (new-
              line) are understood.

       ~a     Inserts  the  string contained in the sign variable (same as `~i
              sign').  The escape sequences `\t' (tabulator)  and  `\n'  (new-
              line) are understood.

       ~bname . . .
              Add the given names to the list of carbon copy recipients but do
              not make the names visible  in  the  Cc:  line  (`blind'  carbon
              copy).

       ~cname . . .
              Add the given names to the list of carbon copy recipients.

       ~Fmessages
              Identical to ~f, except all message headers and all  MIME  parts
              are included.

       ~h     Edit  the  message header fields `To:', `Cc:', `Bcc:', and `Sub-
              ject:' by typing each one in  turn  and  allowing  the  user  to
              append  text to the end or modify the field by using the current
              terminal erase and kill characters.

       ~H     Edit the message header fields `From:', `Reply-To:',  `Sender:',
              and `Organization:' in the same manner as described for ~h.  The
              default  values  for  these  fields  originate  from  the  from,
              replyto,  and ORGANIZATION variables.  If this tilde command has
              been used, changing the variables has no effect on  the  current
              message anymore.

       ~ivariable
              Insert  the  value  of  the  specified variable into the message
              adding a newline character at the end.  If the variable is unset
              or  empty,  the message remains unaltered.  The escape sequences
              `\t' (tabulator) and `\n' (newline) are understood.

       ~mmessages
              Read the named messages into the message being sent, indented by
              a tab or by the value of indentprefix.  If no messages are spec-
              ified, read the  current  message.   Message  headers  currently
              being  ignored  (by  the  ignore  or  retain  command)  are  not
              included.  For MIME multipart messages, only the first printable
              part is included.

       ~Mmessages
              Identical  to  ~m, except all message headers and all MIME parts
              are included.

       ~p     Print out the message collected so far, prefaced by the  message
              header  fields  and followed by the attachment list, if any.  If
              the message text is longer than the screen  size,  it  is  piped
              through the pager.

       ~q     Abort  the message being sent, copying the message to `dead.let-
              ter' in the user's home directory if save is set.

       ~rfilename
              Read the named file into the message.

       ~sstring
              Cause the named string to become the current subject field.

       ~tname . . .
              Add the given names to the direct recipient list.

              mand gives no output or terminates abnormally, retain the origi-
              nal  text  of  the message.  The command fmt(1) is often used as
              command to rejustify the message.

       ~:mailx-command
              Execute the given mailx command.  Not all commands, however, are
              allowed.

       ~_mailx-command
              Identical to ~:.

       ~~string
              Insert the string of text in the message prefaced by a single ~.
              If the escape character has been changed, that character must be
              doubled in order to send it at the beginning of a line.

   Variable options
       Options  are  controlled  via set and unset commands, see their entries
       for a syntax description.  An option is also set if  it  is  passed  to
       mailx  as  part  of the environment (this is not restricted to specific
       variables as in the POSIX standard).  A value given in a  startup  file
       overrides a value imported from the environment, but it is not possible
       to unset an environment variable in a startup  file.   Options  may  be
       either binary, in which case it is only significant to see whether they
       are set or not; or string, in which case the actual value is of  inter-
       est.

   Binary options
       The binary options include the following:

       allnet Causes  only  the  local  part  to  be  evaluated when comparing
              addresses.

       append Causes messages saved in mbox to be appended to the  end  rather
              than prepended.  This should always be set.

       ask or asksub
              Causes mailx to prompt for the subject of each message sent.  If
              the user responds with simply a newline, no subject  field  will
              be sent.

       askatend
              Causes  the  prompts  for `Cc:' and `Bcc:' lists to appear after
              the message has been edited.

       askattach
              If set, mailx asks for files to attach at the end of  each  mes-
              sage.   Responding  with  a  newline indicates not to include an
              attachment.

       askcc  Causes the user to be prompted for additional carbon copy recip-
              ients  (at  the  end of each message if askatend or bsdcompat is
              Causes threads to be collapsed automatically when threaded  mode
              is entered (see the collapse command).

       autoinc
              Same as newmail.

       autoprint
              Causes the delete command to behave like dp - thus, after delet-
              ing a message, the next one will be typed automatically.

       autothread
              Causes threaded mode (see the  thread  command)  to  be  entered
              automatically when a folder is opened.

       bang   Enables  the  substitution  of  `!'  by the contents of the last
              command line in shell escapes.

       bsdannounce
              Causes automatic display of a header summary after  executing  a
              folder command.

       bsdcompat
              Sets  some cosmetical features to traditional BSD style; has the
              same affect as setting `askatend' and all other  variables  pre-
              fixed  with  `bsd',  setting  prompt  to  `& ', and changing the
              default pager to more.

       bsdflags
              Changes the letters printed in the first column of a header sum-
              mary to traditional BSD style.

       bsdheadline
              Changes  the  display  of  columns in a header summary to tradi-
              tional BSD style.

       bsdmsgs
              Changes some informational messages to traditional BSD style.

       bsdorder
              Causes the `Subject:' field  to  appear  immediately  after  the
              `To:' field in message headers and with the ~h tilde command.

       bsdset Changes  the output format of the set command to traditional BSD
              style.

       chained-junk-tokens
              Normally, the Bayesian junk mail filter  bases  its  classifica-
              tions  on  single  word tokens extracted from messages.  If this
              option is set, adjacent words are combined to pairs,  which  are
              then used as additional tokens.  This usually improves the accu-
              racy of the filter, but also increases the  junk  mail  database
              five- to tenfold.
              obtained from the local cache (see imap-cache).  Mailboxes  that
              are  not  present  in  the  cache and messages that have not yet
              entirely been fetched from the  server  are  not  available;  to
              fetch  all  messages  in  a mailbox at once, the command `copy *
              /dev/null' can be used while still in online mode.  Changes that
              are  made  to IMAP mailboxes in disconnected mode are queued and
              committed later when a connection to that server  is  opened  in
              online mode.  This procedure is not completely reliable since it
              cannot be guaranteed that the IMAP unique identifiers (UIDs)  on
              the server still match the ones in the cache at that time.  Data
              is saved to `dead.letter' when this problem occurs.

       disconnected-user@host
              The specified account is handled as described  for  the  discon-
              nected variable above, but other accounts are not affected.

       dot    The  binary  option dot causes mailx to interpret a period alone
              on a line as the terminator of a message the user is sending.

       editheaders
              When a message is edited while being  composed,  its  header  is
              included  in  the  editable  text.   `To:', `Cc:', `Bcc:', `Sub-
              ject:', `From:',  `Reply-To:',  `Sender:',  and  'Organization:'
              fields are accepted within the header, other fields are ignored.

       emptybox
              If  set, an empty mailbox file is not removed.  This may improve
              the interoperability with other mail user agents  when  using  a
              common folder directory.

       emptystart
              If  the  mailbox  is  empty,  mailx normally prints `No mail for
              user' and exits immediately.   If  this  option  is  set,  mailx
              starts even with an empty mailbox.

       expandaddr
              Causes mailx to expand message recipient addresses, as explained
              in the section, Recipient address specifications.

       flipr  Exchanges the Respond with the respond commands and vice-versa.

       forward-as-attachment
              Original messages are normally sent as inline text with the for-
              ward  command, and only the first part of a multipart message is
              included.  With this option, messages  are  sent  as  MIME  mes-
              sage/rfc822  attachments,  and  all of their parts are included.
              The fwdignore and fwdretain options are ignored  when  the  for-
              ward-as-attachment option is set.

       fullnames
              When  replying  to a message, mailx normally removes the comment
              parts of email addresses, which by convention contain  the  full
              An option related to dot is ignoreeof which makes  mailx  refuse
              to  accept  a control-d as the end of a message.  Ignoreeof also
              applies to mailx command mode.

       imap-use-starttls
              Causes mailx to issue a STARTTLS command to make an  unencrypted
              IMAP  session SSL/TLS encrypted.  This functionality is not sup-
              ported by all servers, and is not used if the session is already
              encrypted by the IMAPS method.

       imap-use-starttls-user@host
              Activates imap-use-starttls for a specific account.

       keep   This  option  causes mailx to truncate the user's system mailbox
              instead of deleting it when it is empty.  This should always  be
              set,  since  it prevents malicious users from creating fake mail
              folders in a world-writable spool directory.

       keepsave
              When a message is saved, it is usually discarded from the origi-
              nating  folder  when  mailx is quit.  Setting this option causes
              all saved message to be retained.

       markanswered
              When a message is replied to and this variable  is  set,  it  is
              marked  as  having  been  answered.   This mark has no technical
              meaning in the mail system; it just causes messages to be marked
              in the header summary, and makes them specially addressable.

       metoo  Usually,  when a group is expanded that contains the sender, the
              sender is removed  from  the  expansion.   Setting  this  option
              causes the sender to be included in the group.

       newmail
              Checks  for  new mail in the current folder each time the prompt
              is printed.  For IMAP mailboxes, the server is then  polled  for
              new  mail,  which may result in delayed operation if the connec-
              tion to the server is slow.  A maildir folder must be re-scanned
              to determine if new mail has arrived.

              If  this  variable  is  set to the special value nopoll, an IMAP
              server is not actively asked for new  mail,  but  new  mail  may
              still be detected and announced with any other IMAP command that
              is sent to the server.  A maildir folder is not scanned then.

              In any case, the IMAP server may send notifications  about  mes-
              sages that have been deleted on the server by another process or
              client.  In this case, `Expunged n messages' is printed  regard-
              less of this variable, and message numbers may have changed.

       noheader
              Setting the option noheader is the same as giving the -N flag on

       pop3-use-apop
              If  this variable is set, the APOP authentication method is used
              when a connection to a POP3 server is initiated.  The  advantage
              of  this  method over the usual USER/PASS authentication is that
              the password is not sent over the network in  clear  text.   The
              connection  fails  if  the server does not support the APOP com-
              mand.

       pop3-use-apop-user@host
              Enables pop3-use-apop for a specific account.

       pop3-use-starttls
              Causes mailx to issue a STLS command to make an unencrypted POP3
              session  SSL/TLS encrypted.  This functionality is not supported
              by all servers, and is  not  used  if  the  session  is  already
              encrypted by the POP3S method.

       pop3-use-starttls-user@host
              Activates pop3-use-starttls for a specific account.

       print-all-chars
              This  option  causes  all characters to be considered printable.
              It is only effective if given in  a  startup  file.   With  this
              option  set,  some  character  sequences in messages may put the
              user's terminal in an undefined state when  printed;  it  should
              only be used as a last resort if no working system locale can be
              found.

       print-alternatives
              When a MIME message part of type multipart/alternative  is  dis-
              played and it contains a subpart of type text/plain, other parts
              are normally discarded.  Setting this variable causes  all  sub-
              parts  to  be  displayed, just as if the surrounding part was of
              type multipart/mixed.

       quiet  Suppresses the printing of the version when first invoked.

       record-resent
              If both this variable and  the  record  variable  are  set,  the
              resend and Resend commands save messages to the record folder as
              it is normally only done for newly composed messages.

       reply-in-same-charset
              If this variable is set, mailx first tries to use the same char-
              acter  set  of the original message for replies.  If this fails,
              the sendcharsets variable is evaluated as usual.

       Replyall
              Reverses the sense of reply and Reply commands.

       save   When the user aborts a message with two RUBOUT (interrupt  char-
       showlast
              Setting  this  option  causes mailx to start at the last message
              instead of the first one when opening a mail folder.

       showname
              Causes mailx to use the sender's real name instead of the  plain
              address  in  the  header field summary and in message specifica-
              tions.

       showto Causes the recipient of the message to be shown  in  the  header
              summary if the message was sent by the user.

       skipemptybody
              If an outgoing message does not contain any text in its first or
              only message part, do not send it but discard it  silently  (see
              also the -E option).

       smime-force-encryption
              Causes mailx to refuse sending unencrypted messages.

       smime-sign
              If  this  variable  is  set, outgoing messages are S/MIME signed
              with the user's private key.  Signing a message enables a recip-
              ient  to  verify  that the sender used a valid certificate, that
              the email addresses in the certificate match those in  the  mes-
              sage  header, and that the message content has not been altered.
              It does not change the message text, and people will be able  to
              read the message as usual.

       smime-no-default-ca
              Do  not  load  the  default  CA  locations when verifying S/MIME
              signed messages.  Only applicable if  S/MIME  support  is  built
              using OpenSSL.

       smtp-use-starttls
              Causes mailx to issue a STARTTLS command to make an SMTP session
              SSL/TLS  encrypted.   Not  all  servers  support  this  command;
              because of common implementation defects, it cannot be automati-
              cally determined whether a server supports it or not.

       ssl-no-default-ca
              Do not load the default CA locations to  verify  SSL/TLS  server
              certificates.  Only applicable if SSL/TLS support is built using
              OpenSSL.

       ssl-v2-allow
              Accept  SSLv2  connections.   These  are  normally  not  allowed
              because this protocol version is insecure.

       stealthmua
              Inhibits  the  generation of the `Message-Id:' and `User-Agent:'
              header fields that include obvious references to  mailx.   There
              is enabled.

       writebackedited
              If this variable is set, messages modified  using  the  edit  or
              visual  commands  are written back to the current folder when it
              is quit.  This is only possible for  writable  folders  in  mbox
              format.   Setting  this variable also disables MIME decoding and
              decryption for the editing commands.

   String Options
       The string options include the following:

       attrlist
              A sequence of characters to print in the `attribute' column of a
              header  summary,  each for one type of messages in the following
              order: new, unread but old, new but read, read and  old,  saved,
              preserved,  mboxed, flagged, answered, draft, killed, start of a
              collapsed thread, collapsed, classified as junk.  The default is
              `NUROSPMFATK+-J',  or  `NU  *HMFATK+-J' if bsdflags or the SYSV3
              environment variable are set.

       autobcc
              Specifies a list of recipients to which a blind carbon  copy  of
              each outgoing message will be sent automatically.

       autocc Specifies  a  list  of recipients to which a carbon copy of each
              outgoing message will be sent automatically.

       autosort
              Causes sorted mode (see the sort command) to be entered automat-
              ically  with  the  value of this option as sorting method when a
              folder is opened.

       cmd    The default value for the pipe command.

       crt    The valued option crt is used as a threshold  to  determine  how
              long  a message must be before PAGER is used to read it.  If crt
              is set without a value, then the height of the  terminal  screen
              stored  in  the  system  is  used  to compute the threshold (see
              stty(1)).

       DEAD   The name of the file to use for saving aborted  messages.   This
              defaults to `dead.letter' in the user's home directory.

       EDITOR Pathname  of  the  text editor to use in the edit command and ~e
              escape.  If not defined, then a default editor is used.

       encoding
              The default MIME encoding to use in outgoing text  messages  and
              message  parts.  Valid values are 8bit or quoted-printable.  The
              default is 8bit.  In case the mail transfer system is not  ESMTP
              compliant, quoted-printable should be used instead.  If there is
              that begin with  `+'  then  refer  to  IMAP  mailboxes  on  that
              account.  An IMAP folder is normally given in the form

                  imaps://mylogin@imap.myisp.example

              In this case, the `+' and `@' prefixes for folder names have the
              same effect (see the folder command).

              Some IMAP servers do not accept the creation of mailboxes in the
              hierarchy base; they require that they are created as subfolders
              of `INBOX'.  With such servers, a folder name of the form

                  imaps://mylogin@imap.myisp.example/INBOX.

              should be used (the last character  is  the  server's  hierarchy
              delimiter).   Folder  names  prefixed  by `+' will then refer to
              folders below `INBOX', while folder names prefixed by `@'  refer
              to  folders  below  the  hierarchy base.  See the imap namespace
              command for a method to detect the appropriate prefix and delim-
              iter.

       folder-hook
              When a folder is opened and this variable is set, the macro cor-
              responding to the value of this variable is executed.  The macro
              is  also  invoked  when  new mail arrives, but message lists for
              commands executed from the macro only include newly arrived mes-
              sages then.

       folder-hook-fullname
              When  a folder named fullname is opened, the macro corresponding
              to the value of this variable is executed.  Unlike other  folder
              specifications,  the  fully  expanded  name of a folder, without
              metacharacters, is used to avoid ambiguities.  The macro  speci-
              fied with folder-hook is not executed if this variable is effec-
              tive for a folder (unless it is explicitly  invoked  within  the
              called macro).

       from   The  address  (or  a  list of addresses) to put into the `From:'
              field of the message header.  If replying to  a  message,  these
              addresses  are  handled  as if they were in the alternates list.
              If the machine's hostname is not  valid  at  the  Internet  (for
              example  at  a dialup machine), either this variable or hostname
              have to be set to get correct Message-ID header fields.  If from
              contains more than one address, the sender variable must also be
              set.

       fwdheading
              The string to print before the text of a message with  the  for-
              ward command (unless the forward-as-attachment variable is set).
              Defaults to ``-------- Original Message --------'' if unset.  If
              it is set to the empty string, no heading is printed.

                  %l    The number of lines of the message.
                  %m    Message number.
                  %o    The number of octets (bytes) in the message.
                  %s    Message subject (if any).
                  %S    Message subject (if any) in double quotes.
                  %t    The position in threaded/sorted order.
                  %>    A `>' for the current message, otherwise ` '.
                  %<    A `<' for the current message, otherwise ` '.
                  %%    A `%' character.

              The     default    is    `%>%a%m %18f %16d %4l/%-5o %i%s',    or
              `%>%a%m %20f  %16d %3l/%-5o %i%S' if bsdcompat is set.

       hostname
              Use this string  as  hostname  when  expanding  local  addresses
              instead of the value obtained from uname(2) and getaddrinfo(3).

       imap-auth
              Sets  the  IMAP authentication method.  Valid values are `login'
              for  the  usual  password-based  authentication  (the  default),
              `cram-md5',  which  is a password-based authentication that does
              not send the password over the network in clear text, and  `gss-
              api' for GSSAPI-based authentication.

       imap-auth-user@host
              Sets the IMAP authentication method for a specific account.

       imap-cache
              Enables  caching  of IMAP mailboxes.  The value of this variable
              must point to a directory that is either existent or can be cre-
              ated  by  mailx.   All  contents  of the cache can be deleted by
              mailx at any time; it is not  safe  to  make  assumptions  about
              them.

       imap-keepalive
              IMAP servers may close the connection after a period of inactiv-
              ity; the standard requires this to be at least 30  minutes,  but
              practical  experience  may  vary.   Setting  this  variable to a
              numeric value greater than 0 causes a NOOP command  to  be  sent
              each value seconds if no other operation is performed.

       imap-list-depth
              When retrieving the list of folders on an IMAP server, the fold-
              ers command stops after it has reached a certain depth to  avoid
              possible  infinite  loops.   The value of this variable sets the
              maximum depth allowed.  The default is 2.  If the folder separa-
              tor on the current IMAP server is a slash `/', this variable has
              no effect, and the folders command does not descend to  subfold-
              ers.

       indentprefix
              String  used by the `~m' and `~M' tilde escapes and by the quote

       MAIL   Is  used  as  the  user's mailbox, if set.  Otherwise, a system-
              dependent default is used.  Can be a protocol:// string (see the
              folder command for more information).

       MAILX_HEAD
              A  string  to  put  at  the  beginning of each new message.  The
              escape sequences `\t' (tabulator) and `\n' (newline) are  under-
              stood.

       MAILX_TAIL
              A  string  to  put  at  the end of each new message.  The escape
              sequences `\t' (tabulator) and `\n' (newline) are understood.

       maximum-unencoded-line-length
              Messages that contain lines longer than the value of this  vari-
              able  are  encoded in quoted-printable even if they contain only
              ASCII characters.  The maximum effective value is 950.   If  set
              to  0,  all ASCII text messages are encoded in quoted-printable.
              S/MIME signed messages are always  encoded  in  quoted-printable
              regardless of the value of this variable.

       MBOX   The name of the mbox file.  It can be the name of a folder.  The
              default is `mbox' in the user's home directory.

       NAIL_EXTRA_RC
              The name of an optional startup file to be read after ~/.mailrc.
              This variable is ignored if it is imported from the environment;
              it has an effect only if it is set in /etc/mail.rc or  ~/.mailrc
              to    allow    bypassing    the   configuration   with   e.   g.
              `MAILRC=/dev/null'.  Use this file for  commands  that  are  not
              understood by other mailx implementations.

       newfolders
              If  this  variable  has  the  value maildir, newly created local
              folders will be in maildir format.

       nss-config-dir
              A directory that contains the files certN.db  to  retrieve  cer-
              tificates,  keyN.db  to  retrieve  private  keys, and secmod.db,
              where N is a  digit.   These  are  usually  taken  from  Mozilla
              installations,    so    an    appropriate    value    might   be
              `~/.mozilla/firefox/default.clm'.  Mailx opens these files read-
              only  and does not modify them.  However, if the files are modi-
              fied by Mozilla while mailx is running, it  will  print  a  `Bad
              database'  message.   It  may  be  necessary to create copies of
              these files that are  exclusively  used  by  mailx  then.   Only
              applicable  if S/MIME and SSL/TLS support is built using Network
              Security Services (NSS).

       ORGANIZATION
              The value to put into the `Organization:' field of  the  message
              When a MIME message part of content/subcontent type is displayed
              or it is replied to, its text is filtered through the  value  of
              this variable interpreted as a shell command.  Special care must
              be taken when using such commands as mail viruses  may  be  dis-
              tributed  by  this  method; if messages of type application/x-sh
              were filtered through the shell, for example, a  message  sender
              could  easily execute arbitrary code on the system mailx is run-
              ning on.

       pop3-keepalive
              POP3 servers may close the connection after a period of inactiv-
              ity;  the  standard requires this to be at least 10 minutes, but
              practical experience may  vary.   Setting  this  variable  to  a
              numeric  value  greater  than 0 causes a NOOP command to be sent
              each value seconds if no other operation is performed.

       prompt The string printed when a  command  is  accepted.   Defaults  to
              `? ', or to `& ' if the bsdcompat variable is set.

       quote  If  set,  mailx starts a replying message with the original mes-
              sage prefixed by the value of the variable  indentprefix.   Nor-
              mally,  a  heading  consisting  of  `Fromheaderfield  wrote:' is
              printed before  the  quotation.   If  the  string  noheading  is
              assigned to the quote variable, this heading is omitted.  If the
              string  headers  is  assigned,  the  headers  selected  by   the
              ignore/retain  commands are printed above the message body, thus
              quote acts like an automatic ~m command  then.   If  the  string
              allheaders  is  assigned, all headers are printed above the mes-
              sage body, and all MIME parts are included, thus quote acts like
              an automatic ~M command then.

       record If  defined, gives the pathname of the folder used to record all
              outgoing mail.  If not defined, then outgoing  mail  is  not  so
              saved.   When  saving  to  this folder fails, the message is not
              sent but saved to the `dead.letter' file instead.

       replyto
              A list of addresses to put into the  `Reply-To:'  field  of  the
              message  header.   If  replying to a message, such addresses are
              handled as if they were in the alternates list.

       screen When mailx initially prints the message headers,  it  determines
              the  number  to  print  by looking at the speed of the terminal.
              The faster the terminal, the more it prints.  This option  over-
              rides  this  calculation  and specifies how many message headers
              are printed.  This number is also used for scrolling with the  z
              command.

       sendcharsets
              A  comma-separated  list of character set names that can be used
              in Internet mail.  When a message that contains  characters  not
              representable  in  US-ASCII is prepared for sending, mailx tries
              sent on behalf of somebody other; in this case,  `From:'  should
              contain  the  address of the person that took responsibility for
              the message, and `Sender:' should contain  the  address  of  the
              person  that  actually  sent the message.  The sender address is
              handled as if it were in the alternates list.

       sendmail
              To use an alternate mail delivery system, set this option to the
              full  pathname  of the program to use.  This should be used with
              care.

       SHELL  Pathname of the shell to use in the ! command and the ~! escape.
              A default shell is used if this option is not defined.

       Sign   A string for use with the ~A command.

       sign   A string for use with the ~a command.

       signature
              Must  correspond  to  the name of a readable file if set.
              The file's content is then appended  to  each  singlepart
              message  and to the first part of each multipart message.
              Be warned that there is no possibility to edit the signa-
              ture for an individual message.

       smime-ca-dir
              Specifies  a directory with CA certificates for verifica-
              tion of S/MIME signed messages.  The format is  the  same
              as  described  in SSL_CTX_load_verify_locations(3).  Only
              applicable if S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.

       smime-ca-file
              Specifies a file with CA certificates for verification of
              S/MIME  signed  messages.   The  format  is  the  same as
              described  in   SSL_CTX_load_verify_locations(3).    Only
              applicable if S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.

       smime-cipher-user@host
              Specifies   a   cipher  to  use  when  generating  S/MIME
              encrypted messages  for  user@host.   Valid  ciphers  are
              rc2-40 (RC2 with 40 bits), rc2-64 (RC2 with 64 bits), des
              (DES, 56 bits) and des-ede3 (3DES,  112/168  bits).   The
              default  is 3DES.  It is not recommended to use the other
              ciphers unless a recipient's client is actually unable to
              handle  3DES  since they are comparatively weak; but even
              so, the recipient should upgrade his software in  prefer-
              ence.

       smime-crl-file
              Specifies a file that contains a CRL in PEM format to use
              when  verifying  S/MIME  messages.   Only  applicable  if
              for user@host are available, the smime-nickname-user@host
              variable should be set.  Otherwise a certificate for  the
              recipient is automatically retrieved from the certificate
              database, if possible.

              If a message is sent to multiple recipients, each of them
              for  whom a corresponding variable is set will receive an
              individually encrypted  message;  other  recipients  will
              continue  to receive the message in plain text unless the
              smime-force-encryption variable is  set.   It  is  recom-
              mended  to  sign encrypted messages, i.e. to also set the
              smime-sign variable.

       smime-nickname-user@host
              Specifies the nickname of a certificate to be  used  when
              encrypting  messages  for user@host .  Only applicable if
              S/MIME support is built using NSS.

       smime-sign-cert
              Points to a file in PEM format that contains  the  user's
              private  key  as  well as his certificate.  Both are used
              with S/MIME for signing and  decrypting  messages.   Only
              applicable if S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.

       smime-sign-cert-user@host
              Overrides  smime-sign-cert  for  the  specific addresses.
              When signing messages and the value of the from  variable
              is  set  to  user@host,  the specific file is used.  When
              decrypting messages, their recipient fields (To: and Cc:)
              are  searched  for addresses for which such a variable is
              set.  Mailx always uses the first address  that  matches,
              so  if  the  same message is sent to more than one of the
              user's addresses using different encryption keys, decryp-
              tion  might  fail.   Only applicable if S/MIME support is
              built using OpenSSL.

       smime-sign-nickname
              Specifies that the named certificate be used for  signing
              mail.  If this variable is not set, but a single certifi-
              cate matching the current from address is  found  in  the
              database,  that one is used automatically.  Only applica-
              ble if S/MIME support is built using NSS.

       smime-sign-nickname-user@host
              Overrides smime-sign-nickname  for  a  specific  address.
              Only applicable if S/MIME support is built using NSS.

       smtp   Normally,  mailx invokes sendmail(8) directly to transfer
              messages.  If the smtp variable is set, a SMTP connection
              to  the server specified by the value of this variable is
              used instead.  If the SMTP server does not use the  stan-
              dard port, a value of server:port can be given, with port
              nal, it will abort and save the message to the `dead.let-
              ter' file.

       smtp-auth
              Sets  the SMTP authentication method.  If set to `login',
              or if unset and smtp-auth-user  is  set,  AUTH  LOGIN  is
              used.   If  set  to `cram-md5', AUTH CRAM-MD5 is used; if
              set to `plain', AUTH PLAIN is used.  Otherwise,  no  SMTP
              authentication is performed.

       smtp-auth-user@host
              Overrides   smtp-auth   for  specific  values  of  sender
              addresses, depending on the from variable.

       smtp-auth-password
              Sets the global password for SMTP AUTH.   Both  user  and
              password  have  to be given for AUTH LOGIN and AUTH CRAM-
              MD5.

       smtp-auth-password-user@host
              Overrides  smtp-auth-password  for  specific  values   of
              sender addresses, depending on the from variable.

       smtp-auth-user
              Sets  the  global user name for SMTP AUTH.  Both user and
              password have to be given for AUTH LOGIN and  AUTH  CRAM-
              MD5.

              If this variable is set but neither smtp-auth-password or
              a matching  smtp-auth-password-user@host  can  be  found,
              mailx will as for a password on the user's terminal.

       smtp-auth-user-user@host
              Overrides  smtp-auth-user  for  specific values of sender
              addresses, depending on the from variable.

       ssl-ca-dir
              Specifies a directory with CA certificates for  verifica-
              tion     of    SSL/TLS    server    certificates.     See
              SSL_CTX_load_verify_locations(3)  for  more  information.
              Only   applicable  if  SSL/TLS  support  is  built  using
              OpenSSL.

       ssl-ca-file
              Specifies a file with CA certificates for verification of
              SSL/TLS   server   certificates.   See  SSL_CTX_load_ver-
              ify_locations(3) for more information.   Only  applicable
              if SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-cert
              Sets  the  file  name  for  a  SSL/TLS client certificate
              required by some servers.   Only  applicable  if  SSL/TLS
              Specifies a file that contains a CRL in PEM format to use
              when  verifying SSL/TLS server certificates.  Only appli-
              cable if SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-crl-dir
              Specifies a directory that contains files  with  CRLs  in
              PEM  format to use when verifying SSL/TLS server certifi-
              cates.  Only applicable if SSL/TLS support is built using
              OpenSSL.

       ssl-key
              Sets  the  file  name  for  the  private key of a SSL/TLS
              client certificate.  If unset, the name of  the  certifi-
              cate  file  is  used.   The file is expected to be in PEM
              format.  Only applicable  if  SSL/TLS  support  is  built
              using OpenSSL.

       ssl-key-user@host
              Sets an account-specific file name for the private key of
              a SSL/TLS client certificate.  Overrides ssl-key for  the
              specified account.  Only applicable if SSL/TLS support is
              built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-method
              Selects a SSL/TLS  protocol  version;  valid  values  are
              `ssl2',  `ssl3',  and  `tls1'.   If  unset, the method is
              selected automatically, if possible.

       ssl-method-user@host
              Overrides ssl-method for a specific account.

       ssl-rand-egd
              Gives the pathname  to  an  entropy  daemon  socket,  see
              RAND_egd(3).

       ssl-rand-file
              Gives  the  pathname  to  a  file  with entropy data, see
              RAND_load_file(3).   If  the  file  is  a  regular   file
              writable  by the invoking user, new data is written to it
              after it has been loaded.   Only  applicable  if  SSL/TLS
              support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-verify
              Sets the action to be performed if an error occurs during
              SSL/TLS server certificate validation.  Valid values  are
              `strict'  (fail  and close connection immediately), `ask'
              (ask whether  to  continue  on  standard  input),  `warn'
              (print  a warning and continue), `ignore' (do not perform
              validation).  The default is `ask'.

       ssl-verify-user@host
              Overrides ssl-verify for a specific account.

       VISUAL Pathname of the text editor to use in the visual  command
              and ~v escape.


ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       Besides  the variables described above, mailx uses the following
       environment strings:

       HOME   The user's home directory.

       LANG, LC_ALL, LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES
              See locale(7).

       MAILRC Is used as startup file  instead  of  ~/.mailrc  if  set.
              When  mailx scripts are invoked on behalf of other users,
              this variable should be set to `/dev/null' to avoid side-
              effects from reading their configuration files.

       NAILRC If this variable is set and MAILRC is not set, it is read
              as startup file.

       SYSV3  Changes the letters printed in  the  first  column  of  a
              header summary.

       TMPDIR Used as directory for temporary files instead of /tmp, if
              set.


FILES

       ~/.mailrc
              File giving initial commands.

       /etc/mail.rc
              System wide initialization file.

       ~/.mime.types
              Personal MIME types.

       /etc/mime.types
              System wide MIME types.


EXAMPLES

   Getting started
       The mailx command has two distinct usages, according to  whether
       one  wants  to send or receive mail.  Sending mail is simple: to
       send  a  message  to  a  user  whose  email  address  is,   say,
       <bill@host.example>, use the shell command:

           $ mailx bill@host.example

       then  type  your  message.   Mailx will prompt you for a message
       subject first; after that, lines typed by you form the  body  of
       the message.  When you reach the end of the message, type an EOT

           $ mailx sam@workstation.example bob@server.example
           Subject: Fees
           Tuition fees are due next Friday.  Don't forget!
           <Control-d>
           EOT
           $

       will   send  the  reminder  to  <sam@workstation.example>.   and
       <bob@server.example>.

       To read your mail, simply type

           $ mailx

       Mailx will respond by typing its version  number  and  date  and
       then listing the messages you have waiting.  Then it will type a
       prompt and await your command.  The messages are  assigned  num-
       bers  starting with 1--you refer to the messages with these num-
       bers.  Mailx keeps track of which messages are  new  (have  been
       sent  since you last read your mail) and read (have been read by
       you).  New messages have an N next to them in the header listing
       and old, but unread messages have a U next to them.  Mailx keeps
       track of new/old and read/unread messages by  putting  a  header
       field called Status into your messages.

       To  look  at a specific message, use the type command, which may
       be abbreviated to simply t .  For example, if you had  the  fol-
       lowing messages:

           O 1 drfoo@myhost.example Wed Sep  1 19:52  18/631 "Fees"
           O 2 sam@friends.example  Thu Sep  2 00:08  30/895

       you could examine the first message by giving the command:

           type 1

       which might cause mailx to respond with, for example:

           Message  1:
           From drfoo@myhost.example Wed Sep  1 19:52:25 2004
           Subject: Fees
           Status: R

           Tuition fees are due next Wednesday.  Don't forget!

       Many mailx commands that operate on messages take a message num-
       ber as an argument like the type command.  For  these  commands,
       there  is  a  notion  of  a current message.  When you enter the
       mailx program, the current message is initially  the  first  (or
       the  first  recent)  one.   Thus, you can often omit the message
       type a newline as your first command to mailx to type the  first
       message.

       If,  after  typing  a  message,  you  wish to immediately send a
       reply, you can do so with the reply command.  This command, like
       type,  takes a message number as an argument.  mailx then begins
       a message addressed to the user who sent you the  message.   You
       may then type in your letter in reply, followed by a <control-d>
       at the beginning of a line, as before.

       Note that mailx copies the subject header from the original mes-
       sage.   This is useful in that correspondence about a particular
       matter will tend to retain the same subject heading,  making  it
       easy to recognize.  If there are other header fields in the mes-
       sage, like `Cc:', the information found will also be used.

       Sometimes you will receive a message that has been sent to  sev-
       eral  people  and  wish to reply only to the person who sent it.
       Reply with a capital R replies to a message, but sends a copy to
       the sender only.

       If you wish, while reading your mail, to send a message to some-
       one, but not as a reply to one of your messages,  you  can  send
       the message directly with the mail command, which takes as argu-
       ments the names of the recipients you  wish  to  send  to.   For
       example, to send a message to <frank@machine.example>, you would
       do:

           mail frank@machine.example

       To delete a message from the mail folder, you can use the delete
       command.  In addition to not saving deleted messages, mailx will
       not let you type them, either.  The effect is to make  the  mes-
       sage disappear altogether, along with its number.

       Many  features  of mailx can be tailored to your liking with the
       set command.  The  set  command  has  two  forms,  depending  on
       whether  you  are  setting  a  binary option or a valued option.
       Binary options are either on or off.   For  example,  the  askcc
       option informs mailx that each time you send a message, you want
       it to prompt you for a `Cc:' header, to be included in the  mes-
       sage.  To set the askcc option, you would type

           set askcc

       Valued  options  are  values  which  mailx uses to adapt to your
       tastes.  For example, the record option  tells  mailx  where  to
       save messages sent by you, and is specified by

           set record=Sent

       for example.  Note that no spaces are allowed in set record=Sent
       folder directory is to be found starting from your  home  direc-
       tory.

       Anywhere  a  file  name  is expected, you can use a folder name,
       preceded with `+'.  For example, to put a message into a  folder
       with the save command, you can use:

           save +classwork

       to  save  the  current  message in the classwork folder.  If the
       classwork folder does not yet exist, it will be  created.   Note
       that messages which are saved with the save command are automat-
       ically removed from your system mailbox.

       In order to make a copy of a message in a folder without causing
       that  message  to  be  removed from your system mailbox, use the
       copy command, which is identical in all other  respects  to  the
       save command.

       The  folder  command can be used to direct mailx to the contents
       of a different folder.  For example,

           folder +classwork

       directs mailx to read the contents of the classwork folder.  All
       of the commands that you can use on your system mailbox are also
       applicable to folders, including type, delete,  and  reply.   To
       inquire which folder you are currently editing, use simply:

           folder

       To list your current set of folders, use the folders command.

       Finally, the help command is available to print out a brief sum-
       mary of the most important mailx commands.

       While typing in a message to be sent to others, it is often use-
       ful to be able to invoke the text editor on the partial message,
       print the message, execute a shell command,  or  do  some  other
       auxiliary  function.   Mailx provides these capabilities through
       tilde escapes , which consist of a tilde (~) at the beginning of
       a line, followed by a single character which indicates the func-
       tion to be performed.  For example, to print  the  text  of  the
       message so far, use:

           ~p

       which  will  print a line of dashes, the recipients of your mes-
       sage, and the text of the message so far.  A list  of  the  most
       important tilde escapes is available with `~?'.

   IMAP or POP3 client setup
       `pop3://'  if  the  server  does not offer IMAP.  You should use
       IMAP if you can, though; first because it requires fewer network
       operations  than  POP3 to get the contents of the mailbox and is
       thus faster; and second because  message  attributes  are  main-
       tained by the IMAP server, so you can easily distinguish new and
       old messages each time you connect.  Even if the server does not
       accept  IMAPS  or POP3S connections, it is possible that it sup-
       ports the STARTTLS method to make a  session  SSL/TLS  encrypted
       after  the  initial  connection  has  been performed, but before
       authentication begins.  The only reliable method to see if  this
       works is to try it; enter one of

           set imap-use-starttls
           set pop3-use-starttls

       before you initiate the connection.

       As  you  probably  want messages to be deleted from this account
       after saving them, prefix it with `%:'.   The  shortcut  command
       can  be used to avoid typing that many characters every time you
       want to connect:

           shortcut myisp %:imaps://mylogin@server.myisp.example

       You might want to put this string into a startup file.   As  the
       shortcut command is specific to this implementation of mailx and
       will confuse other implementations, it should  not  be  used  in
       ~/.mailrc, instead, put

           set NAIL_EXTRA_RC=~/.nailrc

       in ~/.mailrc and create a file ~/.nailrc containing the shortcut
       command above.  You can  then  access  your  remote  mailbox  by
       invoking  `mailx  -f myisp' on the command line, or by executing
       `fi myisp' within mailx.

       If you want to use more than one IMAP mailbox on a server, or if
       you  want  to  use  the  IMAP  server  for mail storage too, the
       account command (which is also mailx-specific) is more appropri-
       ate  than  the  shortcut  command.  You can put the following in
       ~/.nailrc:

           account myisp {
               set folder=imaps://mylogin@server.myisp.example
               set record=+Sent MBOX=+mbox outfolder
           }

       and can then access incoming mail for this account  by  invoking
       `mailx -A myisp' on the command line, or by executing `ac myisp'
       within mailx.  After that, a command like `copy 1  +otherfolder'
       will  refer  to  otherfolder on the IMAP server.  In particular,
       `fi &' will change to the mbox folder, and `fi +Sent' will  show
       and  POP3.  If Kerberos is used at your location, you can try to
       activate GSSAPI-based authentication by

           set imap-auth=gssapi

       The advantage of this method is that mailx does not need to know
       your  password at all, nor needs to send sensitive data over the
       network.  Otherwise, the options

           set imap-auth=cram-md5
           set pop3-use-apop

       for IMAP and POP3, respectively,  offer  authentication  methods
       that  avoid to send the password in clear text over the network,
       which is especially important if SSL/TLS cannot be used.  If the
       server  does not offer any of these authentication methods, con-
       ventional user/password based authentication must be  used.   It
       is  sometimes helpful to set the verbose option when authentica-
       tion problems occur.  Mailx will display all data  sent  to  the
       server  in  clear text on the screen with this option, including
       passwords.  You should thus take care that no unauthorized  per-
       son can look at your terminal when this option is set.

       If  you  regularly  use  the  same  workstation  to  access IMAP
       accounts, you can greatly enhance performance by enabling  local
       caching  of  IMAP messages.  For any message that has been fully
       or partially fetched from the server, a local copy is  made  and
       is  used  when  the  message  is accessed again, so most data is
       transferred over the network once  only.   To  enable  the  IMAP
       cache, select a local directory name and put

           set imap-cache=~/localdirectory

       in  the  startup  file.   All files within that directory can be
       overwritten or deleted by mailx at any time, so you  should  not
       use the directory to store other information.

       Once the cache contains some messages, it is not strictly neces-
       sary anymore to open a connection to the IMAP server  to  access
       them.   When  mailx  is  invoked with the -D option, or when the
       disconnected variable is set, only cached data is used  for  any
       folder  you  open.   Messages  that have not yet been completely
       cached are not available then, but all  other  messages  can  be
       handled  as  usual.   Changes  made to IMAP mailboxes in discon-
       nected mode are committed to the IMAP server  next  time  it  is
       used  in  online  mode.  Synchronizing the local status with the
       status on the server is thus partially within your  responsibil-
       ity;  if you forget to initiate a connection to the server again
       before you leave your location, changes made on one  workstation
       are  not  available on others.  Also if you alter IMAP mailboxes
       from a workstation while uncommitted changes are  still  pending
       on  another, the latter data may become invalid.  The same might
       the  ssl-rand-egd  and  ssl-rand-file variables (see the OpenSSL
       FAQ for more information) or specify the protocol  version  with
       ssl-method.   Contact  your ISP if you need a client certificate
       or if verification of the  server  certificate  fails.   If  the
       failed  certificate is indeed valid, fetch its CA certificate by
       executing the shell command

           $ openssl s_client </dev/null -showcerts -connect \
                  server.myisp.example:imaps 2>&1 | tee log

       (see s_client(1)) and put it into the file specified  with  ssl-
       ca-file.   The  data  you need is located at the end of the cer-
       tificate chain within (and including)  the  `BEGIN  CERTIFICATE'
       and `END CERTIFICATE' lines.  (Note that it is possible to fetch
       a forged certificate by this method.  You  can  only  completely
       rely  on  the authenticity of the CA certificate if you fetch it
       in a way that is trusted by other means, such as  by  personally
       receiving the certificate on storage media.)

   Creating a score file or message filter
       The scoring commands are best separated from other configuration
       for clarity, and are mostly mailx specific.  It is  thus  recom-
       mended  to put them in a separate file that is sourced from your
       NAIL_EXTRA_RC as follows:

           source ~/.scores

       The .scores file could then look as follows:

           define list {
               score (subject "important discussion") +10
               score (subject "annoying discussion") -10
               score (from "nicefellow@goodnet") +15
               score (from "badguy@poornet") -5
               move (header x-spam-flag "+++++") +junk
           }
           set folder-hook-imap://user@host/public.list=list

       In this scheme, you would see any  mail  from  `nicefellow@good-
       net',  even  if  the surrounding discussion is annoying; but you
       normally would not see mail  from  `badguy@poornet',  unless  he
       participates  in  the  important  discussion.  Messages that are
       marked with five or more plus characters in their  `X-Spam-Flag'
       field  (inserted  by  some  server-side  filtering software) are
       moved to the folder `junk' in the folder directory.

       Be aware that all criteria in () lead to substring  matches,  so
       you would also score messages from e.g. `notsobadguy@poornetmak-
       ers' negative here.  It is possible to select addresses  exactly
       using "address" message specifications, but these cannot be exe-
       cuted remotely and will thus cause all headers to be  downloaded
       from IMAP servers while looking for matches.
       base must be defined first:

           set junkdb=~/.junkdb

       The  junk  mail database does not contain actual words extracted
       from messages, but hashed representations of  them.   A  foreign
       person  who  can  read  the database could only examine the fre-
       quency of previously known words in your mail.

       If you have sufficient disk space (several 10 MB) available,  it
       is recommended that you set the chained-junk-tokens option.  The
       filter will then also consider two-word  tokens,  improving  its
       accuracy.

       A  set of good messages and junk messages must now be available;
       it is also possible to use the incoming new  messages  for  this
       purpose,  although  it  will  of course take some time until the
       filter becomes useful then.  Do not underestimate the amount  of
       statistical  data  needed;  some  hundred messages are typically
       necessary to get satisfactory results, and  many  thousand  mes-
       sages for best operation.  You have to pass the good messages to
       the good command, and the junk messages to the junk command.  If
       you ever accidentally mark a good message as junk or vice-versa,
       call the ungood or unjunk command to correct this.

       Once a reasonable amount of statistics has been  collected,  new
       messages  can be classified automatically.  The classify command
       marks all messages that the filter considers to be junk, but  it
       does  not  perform  any action on them by default.  It is recom-
       mended that you move these messages into a separate folder  just
       for  the case that false positives occur, or to pass them to the
       junk command later again to further improve the junk mail  data-
       base.   To  automatically move incoming junk messages every time
       the inbox is opened, put lines  like  the  following  into  your
       .scores  file (or whatever name you gave to the file in the last
       example):

           define junkfilter {
               classify (smaller 20000) :n
               move :j +junk
           }
           set folder-hook-imap://user@host/INBOX=junkfilter

       If you set the verbose option before running the  classify  com-
       mand,  mailx  prints  the words it uses for calculating the junk
       status along with their  statistical  probabilities.   This  can
       help you to find out why some messages are not classified as you
       would like them to be.  To see the statistical probability of  a
       given word, use the probability command.

       If  a junk message was not recognized as such, use the junk com-
       mand to correct this.  Also if you encounter a false positive (a
           set pipe-text/html="w3m -dump -T text/html"

       or

           set pipe-text/html="lynx -dump -force_html /dev/stdin"

       will then cause HTML message parts to be converted into  a  more
       friendly form.

   Viewing PDF attachments
       Most  PDF  viewers do not accept input directly from a pipe.  It
       is thus necessary to store the attachment in a  temporary  file,
       as with

           set pipe-application/pdf="cat >/tmp/mailx$$.pdf; \
                  acroread /tmp/mailx$$.pdf; rm /tmp/mailx$$.pdf"

       Note  that  security  defects are discovered in PDF viewers from
       time to time.  Automatical command execution like this can  com-
       promise  your  system  security,  in  particular if you stay not
       always informed about such issues.

   Signed and encrypted messages with S/MIME
       S/MIME provides two central mechanisms: message signing and mes-
       sage  encryption.   A signed message contains some data in addi-
       tion to the regular text.  The data can be used to  verify  that
       the  message  was  sent  using  a  valid  certificate,  that the
       sender's address in the message header matches that in the  cer-
       tificate, and that the message text has not been altered.  Sign-
       ing a message does not change its regular text; it can  be  read
       regardless of whether the recipient's software is able to handle
       S/MIME.  It is thus usually possible to sign all  outgoing  mes-
       sages if so desired.--Encryption, in contrast, makes the message
       text invisible for all people except those who  have  access  to
       the  secret  decryption key.  To encrypt a message, the specific
       recipient's public encryption key must be known.  It is thus not
       possible  to  send encrypted mail to people unless their key has
       been retrieved from either previous communication or public  key
       directories.   A  message  should  always be signed before it is
       encrypted.  Otherwise, it is still possible that  the  encrypted
       message text is altered.

       A central concept to S/MIME is that of the certification author-
       ity (CA).  A CA is a trusted institution  that  issues  certifi-
       cates.   For each of these certificates, it can be verified that
       it really originates from the CA, provided  that  the  CA's  own
       certificate  is  previously  known.  A set of CA certificates is
       usually delivered with OpenSSL and installed on your system.  If
       you trust the source of your OpenSSL software installation, this
       offers reasonable security for S/MIME on the Internet.  In  gen-
       eral, a certificate cannot be more secure than the method its CA
       certificate has been retrieved with, though.  Thus if you  down-
       For  personal  use, it is recommended that you get a S/MIME cer-
       tificate from one of the major CAs on the  Internet  using  your
       WWW  browser.  (Many CAs offer such certificates for free.)  You
       will usually receive a combined certificate and private  key  in
       PKCS#12  format  which  mailx does not directly accept if S/MIME
       support is built using OpenSSL.  To convert it  to  PEM  format,
       use the following shell command:

           $ openssl pkcs12 -in cert.p12 -out cert.pem -clcerts \
               -nodes

       If you omit the -nodes parameter, you can specifiy an additional
       PEM pass phrase for protecting the private key.  Mailx will then
       ask  you  for  that pass phrase each time it signs or decrypts a
       message.  You can then use

           set smime-sign-cert-myname@myisp.example=cert.pem

       to make this private key and certificate known to mailx.

       If S/MIME support is built using NSS, the PKCS#12 file  must  be
       installed  using  Mozilla  (provided  that nss-config-dir is set
       appropriately, see above), and no further  action  is  necessary
       unless multiple user certificates for the same email address are
       installed.  In this case, the smime-sign-nickname  variable  has
       to be set appropriately.

       You can now sign outgoing messages.  Just use

           set smime-sign

       to do so.

       From  each signed message you send, the recipient can fetch your
       certificate and use it to  send  encrypted  mail  back  to  you.
       Accordingly  if  somebody sends you a signed message, you can do
       the same.  First use the verify command to check the validity of
       the  certificate.  After that, retrieve the certificate and tell
       mailx that it should use it for encryption:

           certsave filename
           set smime-encrypt-user@host=filename

       If S/MIME support is built using NSS, the saved certificate must
       be  installed  using  Mozilla.   The value of the smime-encrypt-
       user@host is ignored then, but if multiple certificates for  the
       recipient  are  available, the smime-nickname-user@host variable
       must be set.

       You should carefully consider if you prefer to  store  encrypted
       messages  in  decrypted form.  If you do, anybody who has access
       to your mail folders can read them, but if you do not, you might
       lists (CRLs) on a regular basis.  These lists contain the serial
       numbers  of  certificates  that have been declared invalid after
       they have been issued.  Such usually happens because the private
       key  for the certificate has been compromised, because the owner
       of the certificate has left the organization that  is  mentioned
       in  the  certificate,  etc.   To seriously use S/MIME or SSL/TLS
       verification, an up-to-date CRL is required for each trusted CA.
       There  is  otherwise  no method to distinguish between valid and
       invalidated certificates.  Mailx currently offers  no  mechanism
       to fetch CRLs, or to access them on the Internet, so you have to
       retrieve them by some external mechanism.

       If S/MIME and SSL/TLS support are  built  using  OpenSSL,  mailx
       accepts CRLs in PEM format only; CRLs in DER format must be con-
       verted, e.g. with the shell command

           $ openssl crl -inform DER -in crl.der -out crl.pem

       To tell mailx about the CRLs, a directory that contains all  CRL
       files  (and  no other files) must be created.  The smime-crl-dir
       or ssl-crl-dir variables, respectively,  must  then  be  set  to
       point to that directory.  After that, mailx requires a CRL to be
       present for each CA that is used to verify a certificate.

       If S/MIME and SSL/TLS support are built using NSS, CRLs  can  be
       imported  in  Mozilla applications (provided that nss-config-dir
       is set appropriately).

   Sending mail from scripts
       If you want to send mail from scripts, you must  be  aware  that
       mailx  reads  the  user's  configuration  files  by default.  So
       unless your script is only intended for your  own  personal  use
       (as  e.g.  a  cron job), you need to circumvent this by invoking
       mailx like

           MAILRC=/dev/null mailx -n

       You then need to create  a  configuration  for  mailx  for  your
       script.  This can be done by either pointing the MAILRC variable
       to a custom configuration file, or by passing the  configuration
       in  environment  variables.   Since  many  of  the configuration
       options are not valid shell variables, the env command is useful
       in this situation.  An invocation could thus look like

           env MAILRC=/dev/null from=scriptreply@domain smtp=host \
                 smtp-auth-user=login smtp-auth-password=secret \
                 smtp-auth=login mailx -n -s "subject" \
                 -a attachment_file recipient@domain <content_file


SEE ALSO

       fmt(1),  newaliases(1), openssl(1), pg(1), more(1), vacation(1),
       ssl(3), aliases(5), locale(7), mailaddr(7), sendmail(8)
       conversion.  If iconv() is  not  available  at  all,  the  value
       assigned  to  sendcharsets  must match the character set that is
       used on the terminal.

       Mailx expects input text to be in Unix format, with lines  sepa-
       rated  by newline (^J, \n) characters only.  Non-Unix text files
       that use carriage return (^M, \r) characters in addition will be
       treated  as binary data; to send such files as text, strip these
       characters e. g. by

              tr -d '\015' <input | mailx . . .

       or fix the tools that generate them.

       Limitations with IMAP mailboxes are: It is not possible to  edit
       messages,  but  it  is  possible to append them.  Thus to edit a
       message, create a local copy of it,  edit  it,  append  it,  and
       delete  the  original.  The line count for the header display is
       only appropriate if the entire message has been downloaded  from
       the  server.   The  marking of messages as `new' is performed by
       the IMAP server; use of the exit command instead  of  quit  will
       not  cause  it to be reset, and if the autoinc/newmail variables
       are unset, messages that arrived during a session will not be in
       state  `new'  anymore  when the folder is opened again.  Also if
       commands queued in disconnected mode  are  committed,  the  IMAP
       server  will  delete  the  `new'  flag  for  all messages in the
       changed folder, and new messages will appear as unread  when  it
       is  selected  for viewing later.  The `flagged', `answered', and
       `draft' attributes are usually permanent, but some IMAP  servers
       are  known  to  drop them without notification.  Message numbers
       may change with IMAP every time before the prompt is printed  if
       mailx  is notified by the server that messages have been deleted
       by some other client or process.  In this case, `Expunged n mes-
       sages' is printed, and message numbers may have changed.

       Limitations  with POP3 mailboxes are: It is not possible to edit
       messages, they can only be copied and deleted.  The  line  count
       for the header display is only appropriate if the entire message
       has been downloaded from the server.  The status field of a mes-
       sage  is  maintained  by  the  server  between connections; some
       servers do not update it at all, and with a  server  that  does,
       the  `exit'  command  will  not  cause  the message status to be
       reset.  The `newmail' command and the `newmail' variable have no
       effect.   It  is  not possible to rename or to remove POP3 mail-
       boxes.

       If a RUBOUT (interrupt) is typed while an IMAP or POP3 operation
       is  in  progress,  mailx  will  wait  until the operation can be
       safely aborted, and will then return to  the  command  loop  and
       print  the  prompt  again.   When a second RUBOUT is typed while
       mailx is waiting for the operation to  complete,  the  operation
       itself  will  be canceled.  In this case, data that has not been
       server then which just acts as a proxy.

       Mailx    immediately    contacts    the    SMTP    server    (or
       /usr/lib/sendmail) even when operating in disconnected mode.  It
       would not make much sense for mailx to defer outgoing mail since
       SMTP servers usually provide much more elaborated delay handling
       than mailx could perform as a client.  Thus the recommended set-
       up for sending mail in disconnected mode is to configure a local
       SMTP server such that it sends  outgoing  mail  as  soon  as  an
       external  network  connection is available again, i.e. to advise
       it to do that from a network startup script.

       The junk mail filter follows the concepts developed by Paul Gra-
       ham   in  his  articles,  ``A  Plan  for  Spam'',  August  2002,
       <http://www.paulgraham.com/spam.html>,  and  ``Better   Bayesian
       Filtering'',                    January                    2003,
       <http://www.paulgraham.com/better.html>.  Chained tokens are due
       to a paper by Jonathan A. Zdziarski, ``Advanced Language Classi-
       fication    using    Chained    Tokens'',     February     2004,
       <http://www.nuclearelephant.com/papers/chained.html>.

       A  mail  command appeared in Version 1 AT&T Unix.  Berkeley Mail
       was written in 1978 by Kurt Shoens.  This man  page  is  derived
       from  from  The Mail Reference Manual originally written by Kurt
       Shoens.  Heirloom Mailx enhancements are  maintained  and  docu-
       mented by Gunnar Ritter.

       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic
       form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard  for  Informa-
       tion  Technology -- Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open
       Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright  (C)  2001-2003  by
       the  Institute  of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and
       The Open Group. In the event of  any  discrepancy  between  this
       version  and  the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the
       original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the  referee  docu-
       ment.   The   original   Standard  can  be  obtained  online  at
       http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .   Redistribution  of
       this  material  is  permitted  so  long  as  this notice remains
       intact.


Heirloom mailx 12.5 10/9/10 MAILX(1)



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