top



SYNOPSIS

       top -hv|-bcHiOSs -d secs -n max -u|U user -p pid -o fld -w [cols]

       The traditional switches `-' and whitespace are optional.


DESCRIPTION

       The  top  program  provides  a dynamic real-time view of a running
       system.  It can display system summary information as  well  as  a
       list  of processes or threads currently being managed by the Linux
       kernel.  The types of system summary  information  shown  and  the
       types,  order  and size of information displayed for processes are
       all user configurable and that configuration can be  made  persis-
       tent across restarts.

       The  program  provides a limited interactive interface for process
       manipulation as well as a much more extensive interface  for  per-
       sonal  configuration   --  encompassing every aspect of its opera-
       tion.  And while top is referred to throughout this document,  you
       are  free  to  name the program anything you wish.  That new name,
       possibly an alias, will then be reflected  on  top's  display  and
       used when reading and writing a configuration file.


OVERVIEW

   Documentation
       The remaining Table of Contents

           1. COMMAND-LINE Options
           2. SUMMARY Display
              a. UPTIME and LOAD Averages
              b. TASK and CPU States
              c. MEMORY Usage
           3. FIELDS / Columns Display
              a. DESCRIPTIONS of Fields
              b. MANAGING Fields
           4. INTERACTIVE Commands
              a. GLOBAL Commands
              b. SUMMARY AREA Commands
              c. TASK AREA Commands
                 1. Appearance
                 2. Content
                 3. Size
                 4. Sorting
              d. COLOR Mapping
           5. ALTERNATE-DISPLAY Provisions
              a. WINDOWS Overview
              b. COMMANDS for Windows
              c. SCROLLING a Window
              d. SEARCHING in a Window

       When operating top, the two most important keys are the help (h or
       ?)  key and quit ('q') key.  Alternatively, you could  simply  use
       the traditional interrupt key (^C) when you're done.

       When  started  for  the first time, you'll be presented with these
       traditional elements on the main top screen: 1) Summary  Area;  2)
       Fields/Columns  Header;  3)  Task  Area.   Each  of  these will be
       explored in the sections that follow.  There is also an Input/Mes-
       sage  line between the Summary Area and Columns Header which needs
       no further explanation.

       The main top screen is generally quite adaptive to changes in ter-
       minal  dimensions  under X-Windows.  Other top screens may be less
       so, especially those with static  text.   It  ultimately  depends,
       however,  on your particular window manager and terminal emulator.
       There may be occasions when their view of terminal size  and  cur-
       rent  contents  differs  from top's view, which is always based on
       operating system calls.

       Following any re-size operation, if a  top  screen  is  corrupted,
       appears  incomplete or disordered, simply typing something innocu-
       ous like a punctuation character or cursor motion key will usually
       restore  it.  In extreme cases, the following sequence almost cer-
       tainly will:
              key/cmd  objective
              ^Z       suspend top
              fg       resume top
              <Left>   force a screen redraw (if necessary)

       But if the display is still corrupted, there is one more step  you
       could  try.   Insert this command after top has been suspended but
       before resuming it.
              key/cmd  objective
              reset    restore your terminal settings

       Note: the width of top's display will be limited to 512 positions.
       Displaying  all  fields  requires  approximately  250  characters.
       Remaining screen width is usually allocated to any variable  width
       columns  currently  visible.   The variable width columns, such as
       COMMAND, are noted in topic 3a. DESCRIPTIONS  of  Fields.   Actual
       output  width  may  also  be influenced by the -w switch, which is
       discussed in topic 1. COMMAND-LINE Options.

       Lastly, some of top's screens or functions require the use of cur-
       sor  motion  keys like the standard arrow keys plus the Home, End,
       PgUp and PgDn keys.  If your terminal or emulator does not provide
       those  keys,  the  following combinations are accepted as alterna-
       tives:
              key      equivalent-key-combinations
              Up       alt + \      or  alt + k
              Down     alt + /      or  alt + j
              Left     alt + <      or  alt + h
              Insert   toggle between insert and overtype modes
              Delete   character removed at cursor, moving others left
              Home     jump to beginning of input line
              End      jump to end of input line

   Startup Defaults
       The following startup defaults assume no configuration file,  thus
       no  user  customizations.   Even  so, items shown with an asterisk
       (`*') could be  overridden  through  the  command-line.   All  are
       explained in detail in the sections that follow.

           Global-defaults
              A - Alt display      Off (full-screen)
            * d - Delay time       1.5 seconds
            * H - Threads mode     Off (summarize as tasks)
              I - Irix mode        On  (no, `solaris' smp)
            * p - PID monitoring   Off (show all processes)
            * s - Secure mode      Off (unsecured)
              B - Bold enable      On  (yes, bold globally)
           Summary-Area-defaults
              l - Load Avg/Uptime  On  (thus program name)
              t - Task/Cpu states  On  (1+1 lines, see `1')
              m - Mem/Swap usage   On  (2 lines worth)
              1 - Single Cpu       Off (thus multiple cpus)
           Task-Area-defaults
              b - Bold hilite      Off (use `reverse')
            * c - Command line     Off (name, not cmdline)
            * i - Idle tasks       On  (show all tasks)
              J - Num align right  On  (not left justify)
              j - Str align right  Off (not right justify)
              R - Reverse sort     On  (pids high-to-low)
            * S - Cumulative time  Off (no, dead children)
            * u - User filter      Off (show euid only)
            * U - User filter      Off (show any uid)
              V - Forest view      On  (show as branches)
              x - Column hilite    Off (no, sort field)
              y - Row hilite       On  (yes, running tasks)
              z - color/mono       On  (show colors)


1. COMMAND-LINE Options

       The command-line syntax for top consists of:

         -hv|-bcHiOSs -d secs -n max -u|U user -p pid -o fld -w [cols]

       The  typically mandatory switch ('-') and even whitespace are com-
       pletely optional.

       -h | -v  :Help/Version
            Show library version and the usage prompt, then quit.
            active command for additional information.

       -d  :Delay-time interval as:  -d ss.t (secs.tenths)
            Specifies the delay between screen updates, and overrides the
            corresponding value in one's personal configuration  file  or
            the  startup default.  Later this can be changed with the `d'
            or `s' interactive commands.

            Fractional seconds are honored, but a negative number is  not
            allowed.   In all cases, however, such changes are prohibited
            if top is running in Secure mode, except for root (unless the
            `s'  command-line  option was used).  For additional informa-
            tion on Secure mode see topic 6a. SYSTEM Configuration File.

       -H  :Threads-mode operation
            Instructs top to display individual  threads.   Without  this
            command-line  option  a  summation  of  all  threads  in each
            process is shown.  Later this can be  changed  with  the  `H'
            interactive command.

       -i  :Idle-process toggle
            Starts top with the last remembered `i' state reversed.  When
            this toggle is Off, tasks that have not used  any  CPU  since
            the last update will not be displayed.  For additional infor-
            mation regarding this toggle see topic  4c.  TASK  AREA  Com-
            mands, SIZE.

       -n  :Number-of-iterations limit as:  -n number
            Specifies  the  maximum  number of iterations, or frames, top
            should produce before ending.

       -o  :Override-sort-field as:  -o fieldname
            Specifies the name of  the  field  on  which  tasks  will  be
            sorted, independent of what is reflected in the configuration
            file.  You can prepend a `+' or `-' to the field name to also
            override  the sort direction.  A leading `+' will force sort-
            ing high to low, whereas a `-' will  ensure  a  low  to  high
            ordering.

            This  option  exists  primarily to support automated/scripted
            batch mode operation.

       -O  :Output-field-names
            This option acts as a form of help for the above  -o  option.
            It  will cause top to print each of the available field names
            on a separate line, then quit.  Such names are subject to nls
            restart  top   --   just  issue any of these interactive com-
            mands: `=', `u' or `U'.

            The `p', `u' and `U' command-line options are mutually exclu-
            sive.

       -s  :Secure-mode operation
            Starts top with secure mode forced, even for root.  This mode
            is far better controlled  through  the  system  configuration
            file (see topic 6. FILES).

       -S  :Cumulative-time toggle
            Starts top with the last remembered `S' state reversed.  When
            Cumulative time mode is On, each process is listed  with  the
            cpu  time  that  it and its dead children have used.  See the
            `S' interactive command for additional information  regarding
            this mode.

       -u | -U  :User-filter-mode as:  -u | -U number or name
            Display  only  processes with a user id or user name matching
            that given.  The  `-u'  option  matches  on   effective  user
            whereas the `-U' option matches on any user (real, effective,
            saved, or filesystem).

            Prepending an exclamation point ('!') to the user id or  name
            instructs top to display only processes with users not match-
            ing the one provided.

            The `p', `u' and `U' command-line options are mutually exclu-
            sive.

       -w  :Output-width-override as:  -w [ number ]
            In  Batch mode, when used without an argument top will format
            output using the COLUMNS= and LINES=  environment  variables,
            if  set.   Otherwise,  width will be fixed at the maximum 512
            columns.  With an argument, output width can be decreased  or
            increased  (up  to  512) but the number of rows is considered
            unlimited.

            In normal display mode, when used  without  an  argument  top
            will  attempt  to format output using the COLUMNS= and LINES=
            environment variables, if  set.   With  an  argument,  output
            width  can  only  be decreased, not increased.  Whether using
            environment variables or an argument with  -w,  when  not  in
            Batch mode actual terminal dimensions can never be exceeded.

            Note:  Without  the  use  of this command-line option, output
            width is always based  on  the  terminal  at  which  top  was

           total number of users
           system load avg over the last 1, 5 and 15 minutes

   2b. TASK and CPU States
       This portion consists of a minimum of two lines.  In an SMP  envi-
       ronment,  additional  lines  can reflect individual CPU state per-
       centages.

       Line 1 shows total tasks or threads, depending on the state of the
       Threads-mode toggle.  That total is further classified as:
           running; sleeping; stopped; zombie

       Line 2 shows CPU state percentages based on the interval since the
       last refresh.

       As a default, percentages for these individual categories are dis-
       played.   Where  two labels are shown below, those for more recent
       kernel versions are shown first.
           us, user    : time running un-niced user processes
           sy, system  : time running kernel processes
           ni, nice    : time running niced user processes
           id, idle    : time spent in the kernel idle handler
           wa, IO-wait : time waiting for I/O completion
           hi : time spent servicing hardware interrupts
           si : time spent servicing software interrupts
           st : time stolen from this vm by the hypervisor

       In the alternate  cpu  states  display  modes,  beyond  the  first
       tasks/threads  line, an abbreviated summary is shown consisting of
       these elements:
                      a    b     c    d
           %Cpu(s):  75.0/25.0  100[ ...

       Where: a) is the combined us and ni percentage; b) is the sy  per-
       centage;  c)  is  the total; and d) is one of two visual graphs of
       those representations.  See topic 4b. SUMMARY  AREA  Commands  and
       the  `t'  command for additional information on that special 4-way
       toggle.

   2c. MEMORY Usage
       This portion consists of two lines which  may  express  values  in
       kibibytes  (KiB)  through exbibytes (EiB) depending on the scaling
       factor enforced with the `E' interactive command.

       As a default, Line 1 reflects physical memory, classified as:
           total, free, used and buff/cache

       Line 2 reflects mostly virtual memory, classified as:
           total, free, used and avail (which is physical memory)

       c) is one of two visual graphs of those representations.

       In the case of physical  memory,  the  percentage  represents  the
       total  minus  the  estimated  avail  noted above.  The `Mem' graph
       itself is divided between used and any remaining memory not other-
       wise  accounted for by avail.  See topic 4b. SUMMARY AREA Commands
       and the `m' command for additional  information  on  that  special
       4-way toggle.

       This table may help in interpreting the scaled values displayed:
           KiB = kibibyte = 1024 bytes
           MiB = mebibyte = 1024 KiB = 1,048,576 bytes
           GiB = gibibyte = 1024 MiB = 1,073,741,824 bytes
           TiB = tebibyte = 1024 GiB = 1,099,511,627,776 bytes
           PiB = pebibyte = 1024 TiB = 1,125,899,906,842,624 bytes
           EiB = exbibyte = 1024 PiB = 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes


3. FIELDS / Columns

   3a. DESCRIPTIONS of Fields
       Listed  below  are top's available process fields (columns).  They
       are shown in strict ascii alphabetical order.  You  may  customize
       their  position  and  whether or not they are displayable with the
       `f' or `F' (Fields Management) interactive commands.

       Any field is selectable as the sort field, and you control whether
       they are sorted high-to-low or low-to-high.  For additional infor-
       mation on sort provisions see topic 4c. TASK AREA Commands,  SORT-
       ING.

       The  fields related to physical memory or virtual memory reference
       `(KiB)' which is the unsuffixed display mode.   Such  fields  may,
       however,  be  scaled from KiB through PiB.  That scaling is influ-
       enced via the `e' interactive command or established  for  startup
       through a build option.

        1. %CPU  --  CPU Usage
           The task's share of the elapsed CPU time since the last screen
           update, expressed as a percentage of total CPU time.

           In a true SMP environment, if a process is multi-threaded  and
           top  is  not  operating  in Threads mode, amounts greater than
           100% may be reported.  You toggle Threads mode  with  the  `H'
           interactive command.

           Also  for  multi-processor  environments, if Irix mode is Off,
           top will operate in Solaris mode where a task's cpu usage will
           be   divided   by  the  total  number  of  CPUs.   You  toggle
           Irix/Solaris modes with the `I' interactive command.

           Many different hierarchies of cgroups can exist simultaneously
           on a system and each hierarchy is attached to one or more sub-
           systems.  A subsystem represents a single resource.

           Note:  The  CGROUPS  field, unlike most columns, is not fixed-
           width.  When displayed, it plus any other variable width  col-
           umns  will  be allocated all remaining screen width (up to the
           maximum 512 characters).  Even so, such variable width  fields
           could still suffer truncation.  See topic 5c. SCROLLING a Win-
           dow for additional  information  on  accessing  any  truncated
           data.

        4. CODE  --  Code Size (KiB)
           The amount of physical memory devoted to executable code, also
           known as the Text Resident Set size or TRS.

        5. COMMAND  --  Command Name or Command Line
           Display the command line used to start a task or the  name  of
           the  associated  program.  You toggle between command line and
           name with `c', which is both  a  command-line  option  and  an
           interactive command.

           When you've chosen to display command lines, processes without
           a command line (like kernel threads) will be shown  with  only
           the program name in brackets, as in this example:
               [kthreadd]

           This  field  may  also  be impacted by the forest view display
           mode.  See the `V' interactive command for additional informa-
           tion regarding that mode.

           Note:  The  COMMAND  field, unlike most columns, is not fixed-
           width.  When displayed, it plus any other variable width  col-
           umns  will  be allocated all remaining screen width (up to the
           maximum 512 characters).  Even so, such variable width  fields
           could  still  suffer  truncation.  This is especially true for
           this field when command lines are  being  displayed  (the  `c'
           interactive  command.)   See  topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window for
           additional information on accessing any truncated data.

        6. DATA  --  Data + Stack Size (KiB)
           The amount of physical memory devoted to other than executable
           code, also known as the Data Resident Set size or DRS.

        7. ENVIRON  --  Environment variables
           Display  all  of the environment variables, if any, as seen by
           the respective processes.  These variables will  be  displayed
           in their raw native order, not the sorted order you are accus-
           suppressed.   These  flags  are   officially   documented   in
           <linux/sched.h>.

        9. GID  --  Group Id
           The effective group ID.

       10. GROUP  --  Group Name
           The effective group name.

       11. NI  --  Nice Value
           The  nice  value  of  the  task.   A negative nice value means
           higher priority, whereas a positive  nice  value  means  lower
           priority.   Zero  in this field simply means priority will not
           be adjusted in determining a task's dispatch-ability.

       12. P  --  Last used CPU (SMP)
           A number representing the last used processor.  In a true  SMP
           environment  this will likely change frequently since the ker-
           nel intentionally uses weak affinity.  Also, the very  act  of
           running  top  may break this weak affinity and cause more pro-
           cesses to change CPUs more often (because of the extra  demand
           for cpu time).

       13. PGRP  --  Process Group Id
           Every  process  is  member  of a unique process group which is
           used for distribution of signals and by terminals to arbitrate
           requests  for  their input and output.  When a process is cre-
           ated (forked), it becomes a member of the process group of its
           parent.   By convention, this value equals the process ID (see
           PID) of the first  member  of  a  process  group,  called  the
           process group leader.

       14. PID  --  Process Id
           The task's unique process ID, which periodically wraps, though
           never restarting at zero.  In kernel terms, it is a  dispatch-
           able entity defined by a task_struct.

           This value may also be used as: a process group ID (see PGRP);
           a session ID for the session leader (see SID); a thread  group
           ID  for  the thread group leader (see TGID); and a TTY process
           group ID for the process group leader (see TPGID).

       15. PPID  --  Parent Process Id
           The process ID (pid) of a task's parent.


       18. RUID  --  Real User Id
           The real user ID.

       19. RUSER  --  Real User Name
           The real user name.

       20. S  --  Process Status
           The status of the task which can be one of:
               D = uninterruptible sleep
               R = running
               S = sleeping
               T = stopped by job control signal
               t = stopped by debugger during trace
               Z = zombie

           Tasks  shown  as running should be more properly thought of as
           ready to run  --  their task_struct is simply  represented  on
           the Linux run-queue.  Even without a true SMP machine, you may
           see numerous tasks in this  state  depending  on  top's  delay
           interval and nice value.

       21. SHR  --  Shared Memory Size (KiB)
           The  amount  of  shared memory available to a task, not all of
           which is typically resident.  It simply reflects  memory  that
           could be potentially shared with other processes.

       22. SID  --  Session Id
           A  session  is a collection of process groups (see PGRP), usu-
           ally established by the login shell.  A newly  forked  process
           joins  the  session of its creator.  By convention, this value
           equals the process ID (see PID) of the  first  member  of  the
           session, called the session leader, which is usually the login
           shell.

       23. SUID  --  Saved User Id
           The saved user ID.

       24. SUPGIDS  --  Supplementary Group IDs
           The IDs of any supplementary group(s) established at login  or
           inherited from a task's parent.  They are displayed in a comma
           delimited list.

           Note: The SUPGIDS field, unlike most columns,  is  not  fixed-
           width.   When displayed, it plus any other variable width col-
           umns will be allocated all remaining screen width (up  to  the
           maximum  512 characters).  Even so, such variable width fields
           could still suffer truncation.  See topic 5c. SCROLLING a Win-
           dow  for  additional  information  on  accessing any truncated
           data.

       26. SUSER  --  Saved User Name
           The saved user name.

       27. SWAP  --  Swapped Size (KiB)
           The non-resident portion of a task's address space.

       28. TGID  --  Thread Group Id
           The ID of the thread group to which a task belongs.  It is the
           PID  of  the  thread group leader.  In kernel terms, it repre-
           sents those tasks that share an mm_struct.

       29. TIME  --  CPU Time
           Total CPU time the task has used since it started.  When Cumu-
           lative  mode  is  On, each process is listed with the cpu time
           that it and its dead children have used.  You  toggle  Cumula-
           tive mode with `S', which is both a command-line option and an
           interactive command.  See  the  `S'  interactive  command  for
           additional information regarding this mode.

       30. TIME+  --  CPU Time, hundredths
           The same as TIME, but reflecting more granularity through hun-
           dredths of a second.

       31. TPGID  --  Tty Process Group Id
           The process group ID of the foreground process  for  the  con-
           nected tty, or -1 if a process is not connected to a terminal.
           By convention, this value equals the process ID (see  PID)  of
           the process group leader (see PGRP).

       32. TTY  --  Controlling Tty
           The  name  of  the  controlling terminal.  This is usually the
           device (serial port, pty, etc.) from  which  the  process  was
           started,  and  which  it uses for input or output.  However, a
           task need not be associated with a  terminal,  in  which  case
           you'll see `?' displayed.

       33. UID  --  User Id
           The effective user ID of the task's owner.
           includes all code, data and shared libraries plus  pages  that
           have  been swapped out and pages that have been mapped but not
           used.

       37. WCHAN  --  Sleeping in Function
           Depending on the availability of the  kernel  link  map  (Sys-
           tem.map),  this field will show the name or the address of the
           kernel function in which the task is currently sleeping.  Run-
           ning tasks will display a dash ('-') in this column.

           By  displaying  this  field,  top's  own  working set could be
           increased by over 700Kb,  depending  on  the  kernel  version.
           Should  that  occur, your only means of reducing that overhead
           will be to stop and restart top.

       38. nDRT  --  Dirty Pages Count
           The number of pages that have been modified  since  they  were
           last  written to auxiliary storage.  Dirty pages must be writ-
           ten to auxiliary storage  before  the  corresponding  physical
           memory location can be used for some other virtual page.

       39. nMaj  --  Major Page Fault Count
           The number of major page faults that have occurred for a task.
           A page fault occurs when a process attempts to  read  from  or
           write  to  a virtual page that is not currently present in its
           address space.  A major page fault is when  auxiliary  storage
           access is involved in making that page available.

       40. nMin  --  Minor Page Fault count
           The number of minor page faults that have occurred for a task.
           A page fault occurs when a process attempts to  read  from  or
           write  to  a virtual page that is not currently present in its
           address space.  A minor page fault does not involve  auxiliary
           storage access in making that page available.

       41. nTH  --  Number of Threads
           The number of threads associated with a process.

       42. nsIPC  --  IPC namespace
           The Inode of the namespace used to isolate interprocess commu-
           nication (IPC) resources such as  System  V  IPC  objects  and
           POSIX message queues.

       43. nsMNT  --  MNT namespace
           The  Inode  of  the namespace used to isolate filesystem mount

       46. nsUSER  --  USER namespace
           The  Inode of the namespace used to isolate the user and group
           ID numbers.  Thus, a process could have a normal  unprivileged
           user  ID outside a user namespace while having a user ID of 0,
           with full root privileges, inside that namespace.

       47. nsUTS  --  UTS namespace
           The Inode of the namespace used to isolate  hostname  and  NIS
           domain name.  UTS simply means "UNIX Time-sharing System".

       48. vMj  --  Major Page Fault Count Delta
           The  number  of major page faults that have occurred since the
           last update (see nMaj).

       49. vMn  --  Minor Page Fault Count Delta
           The number of minor page faults that have occurred  since  the
           last update (see nMin).

   3b. MANAGING Fields
       After  pressing the interactive command `f' or `F' (Fields Manage-
       ment) you will be presented with a screen showing:  1)  the  `cur-
       rent'  window name; 2) the designated sort field; 3) all fields in
       their current order along with descriptions.  Entries marked  with
       an  asterisk are the currently displayed fields, screen width per-
       mitting.

           o  As the on screen instructions indicate, you navigate  among
              the  fields  with  the  Up  and Down arrow keys.  The PgUp,
              PgDn, Home and End keys can also be used to  quickly  reach
              the first or last available field.

           o  The  Right  arrow key selects a field for repositioning and
              the Left arrow key or the <Enter> key commits that  field's
              placement.

           o  The  `d'  key  or the <Space> bar toggles a field's display
              status, and thus the presence or absence of the asterisk.

           o  The `s' key designates a field  as  the  sort  field.   See
              topic 4c. TASK AREA Commands, SORTING for additional infor-
              mation regarding your selection of a sort field.

       Note: Any window that has been scrolled horizontally will be reset
       if any field changes are made via the  Fields  Management  screen.
       Any  vertical  scrolled  position,  however, will not be affected.
       See topic  5c.  SCROLLING  a  Window  for  additional  information
       regarding vertical and horizontal scrolling.


4. INTERACTIVE Commands

       Listed below is a brief index of commands within categories.  Some
       commands appear more than once  --  their  meaning  or  scope  may
       vary depending on the context in which they are issued.

         4a. Global-Commands
               <Ent/Sp> ?, =, 0,
               A, B, d, E, e, g, h, H, I, k, q, r, s, W, X, Y, Z
         4b. Summary-Area-Commands
               C, l, t, m, 1, 2, 3
         4c. Task-Area-Commands
               Appearance:  b, J, j, x, y, z
               Content:     c, f, F, o, O, S, u, U, V
               Size:        #, i, n
               Sorting:     <, >, f, F, R
         4d. Color-Mapping
               <Ret>, a, B, b, H, M, q, S, T, w, z, 0 - 7
         5b. Commands-for-Windows
               -, _, =, +, A, a, g, G, w
         5c. Scrolling-a-Window
               C, Up, Dn, Left, Right, PgUp, PgDn, Home, End
         5d. Searching-in-a-Window
               L, &

   4a. GLOBAL Commands
       The  global  interactive  commands  are  always  available in both
       full-screen mode and alternate-display  mode.   However,  some  of
       these  interactive  commands  are  not  available  when running in
       Secure mode.

       If you wish to know in advance whether or not your  top  has  been
       secured,  simply  ask  for help and view the system summary on the
       second line.

         <Enter> or <Space>  :Refresh-Display
              These commands awaken top  and  following  receipt  of  any
              input  the  entire  display  will  be repainted.  They also
              force an update of any hotplugged cpu  or  physical  memory
              changes.

              Use either of these keys if you have a large delay interval
              and wish to see current status,
              mand  will reverse any `i' (idle tasks) and `n' (max tasks)
              commands that might be active.  It  also  provides  for  an
              exit  from PID monitoring, User filtering and Other filter-
              ing.  See the `-p' command-line option for a discussion  of
              PID  monitoring,  the  `U'  or `u' interactive commands for
              User filtering and the `O' or `o' interactive commands  for
              Other filtering.

              Additionally,  any  window  that  has been scrolled will be
              reset with this command.  See topic 5c. SCROLLING a  Window
              for  additional information regarding vertical and horizon-
              tal scrolling.

              When operating in alternate-display mode this command has a
              broader meaning.

          0  :Zero-Suppress toggle
              This  command  determines  whether  zeros are shown or sup-
              pressed for many of the fields in a  task  window.   Fields
              like UID, GID, NI, PR or P are not affected by this toggle.

          A  :Alternate-Display-Mode toggle
              This  command  will  switch  between  full-screen  mode and
              alternate-display mode.   See  topic  5.  ALTERNATE-DISPLAY
              Provisions and the `g' interactive command for insight into
              `current' windows and field groups.

          B  :Bold-Disable/Enable toggle
              This command will influence use of the bold terminfo  capa-
              bility  and  alters both the summary area and task area for
              the `current' window.  While it is intended  primarily  for
              use with dumb terminals, it can be applied anytime.

              Note:  When this toggle is On and top is operating in mono-
              chrome mode, the entire display will appear as normal text.
              Thus,  unless  the `x' and/or `y' toggles are using reverse
              for emphasis, there will be  no  visual  confirmation  that
              they are even on.

       *  d | s  :Change-Delay-Time-interval
              You  will  be prompted to enter the delay time, in seconds,
              between display updates.

              Fractional seconds are honored, but a  negative  number  is
              not   allowed.    Entering  0  causes  (nearly)  continuous
              updates, with an unsatisfactory display as the  system  and
              tty  driver  try  to keep up with top's demands.  The delay
              value is inversely proportional to system loading,  so  set
              ing  label,  it  means that top was forced to truncate some
              portion of that number.  By  raising  the  scaling  factor,
              such truncation can be avoided.

          e  :Extend-Memory-Scale in Task Windows
              With  this command you can cycle through the available task
              window memory scaling which ranges from KiB  (kibibytes  or
              1,024      bytes)     through     PiB     (pebibytes     or
              1,125,899,906,842,624 bytes).

              While top will try to  honor  the  selected  target  range,
              additional  scaling  might  still  be necessary in order to
              accommodate current values.  If you  wish  to  see  a  more
              homogeneous result in the memory columns, raising the scal-
              ing range will usually accomplish that  goal.   Raising  it
              too  high, however, is likely to produce an all zero result
              which cannot be suppressed with the  `0'  interactive  com-
              mand.

          g  :Choose-Another-Window/Field-Group
              You will be prompted to enter a number between 1 and 4 des-
              ignating the field group which should be made the `current'
              window.   You  will soon grow comfortable with these 4 win-
              dows, especially after experimenting with alternate-display
              mode.

          H  :Threads-mode toggle
              When  this  toggle  is  On, individual threads will be dis-
              played for all processes in all visible task windows.  Oth-
              erwise,  top  displays  a  summation of all threads in each
              process.

          I  :Irix/Solaris-Mode toggle
              When operating in Solaris mode (`I' toggled Off), a  task's
              cpu  usage  will  be  divided  by the total number of CPUs.
              After issuing this command, you'll be told the new state of
              this toggle.

       *  k  :Kill-a-task
              You will be prompted for a PID and then the signal to send.

              Entering no PID or a negative number will be interpreted as
              the default shown in the prompt (the first task displayed).
              A PID value of zero means the top program itself.

              The default signal, as reflected in the prompt, is SIGTERM.
              However, you can send any signal, via number or name.

              Entering no PID or a negative number will be interpreted as
              the default shown in the prompt (the first task displayed).
              A PID value of zero means the top program itself.

              A positive nice value will cause a process to  lose  prior-
              ity.   Conversely,  a  negative  nice  value  will  cause a
              process to be viewed more favorably by the  kernel.   As  a
              general  rule,  ordinary  users  can only increase the nice
              value and are prevented from lowering it.

              If you wish to abort the renice process, do one of the fol-
              lowing depending on your progress:
                  1) at the pid prompt, type an invalid number
                  2) at the nice prompt, type <Enter> with no input
                  3) at any prompt, type <Esc>

          W  :Write-the-Configuration-File
              This  will  save  all  of your options and toggles plus the
              current display mode and delay time.  By issuing this  com-
              mand  just  before  quitting  top, you will be able restart
              later in exactly that same state.

          X  :Extra-Fixed-Width
              Some fields are fixed width and  not  scalable.   As  such,
              they  are subject to truncation which would be indicated by
              a `+' in the last position.

              This interactive command can be used to alter the widths of
              the following fields:

                  field  default    field  default    field  default
                  GID       5       GROUP     8       WCHAN    10
                  RUID      5       RUSER     8       nsIPC    10
                  SUID      5       SUSER     8       nsMNT    10
                  UID       5       USER      8       nsNET    10
                                    TTY       8       nsPID    10
                                                      nsUSER   10
                                                      nsUTS    10

              You  will  be  prompted  for  the amount to be added to the
              default widths shown above.  Entering zero forces a  return
              to those defaults.

              If  you  enter  a  negative  number, top will automatically
              increase the column size as needed until there is  no  more
              truncated  data.  You can accelerate this process by reduc-
              ing the delay interval or holding down the <Space> bar.

              Note: Whether explicitly or  automatically  increased,  the
              the  top configuration file.  For details on creating those
              entries, see topic 6c. ADDING INSPECT Entries.

              Most of the keys used to navigate the Inspect  feature  are
              reflected  in  its  header  prologue.   There are, however,
              additional keys available once you have selected a particu-
              lar  file  or command.  They are familiar to anyone who has
              used the pager `less' and are summarized  here  for  future
              reference.

                  key      function
                  =        alternate status-line, file or pipeline
                  /        find, equivalent to `L' locate
                  n        find next, equivalent to `&' locate next
                  <Space>  scroll down, equivalent to <PgDn>
                  b        scroll up, equivalent to <PgUp>
                  g        first line, equivalent to <Home>
                  G        last line, equivalent to <End>

          Z  :Change-Color-Mapping
              This  key  will take you to a separate screen where you can
              change the colors for the `current' window, or for all win-
              dows.   For  details regarding this interactive command see
              topic 4d. COLOR Mapping.

       *  The commands shown with an asterisk (`*') are not available  in
          Secure mode, nor will they be shown on the level-1 help screen.

   4b. SUMMARY AREA Commands
       The summary area interactive commands are always available in both
       full-screen mode and  alternate-display  mode.   They  affect  the
       beginning lines of your display and will determine the position of
       messages and prompts.

       These commands  always  impact  just  the  `current'  window/field
       group.   See  topic  5.  ALTERNATE-DISPLAY  Provisions and the `g'
       interactive command for insight into `current' windows  and  field
       groups.

          C  :Show-scroll-coordinates toggle
              Toggle an informational message which is displayed whenever
              the message line is not otherwise being  used.   For  addi-
              tional information see topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window.

          l  :Load-Average/Uptime toggle
              This is also the line containing the program name (possibly
              an alias) when operating in full-screen mode or  the  `cur-
                  1. detailed percentages by category (default)
                  2. abbreviated user/system and total % + bar graph
                  3. abbreviated user/system and total % + block graph
                  4. turn off task and cpu states display

              When operating in either of the graphic modes, the  display
              becomes  much  more meaningful when individual CPUs or NUMA
              nodes are also displayed.  See the the  `1',  `2'  and  `3'
              commands below for additional information.

          m  :Memory/Swap-Usage toggle
              This  command  affects  the  two summary area lines dealing
              with physical and virtual memory.

              This command serves as  a  4-way  toggle,  cycling  through
              these modes:
                  1. detailed percentages by memory type (default)
                  2. abbreviated % used/total available + bar graph
                  3. abbreviated % used/total available + block graph
                  4. turn off memory display

          1  :Single/Separate-Cpu-States toggle
              This  command affects how the `t' command's Cpu States por-
              tion is shown.  Although this toggle  exists  primarily  to
              serve massively-parallel SMP machines, it is not restricted
              to solely SMP environments.

              When you see `%Cpu(s):' in the summary area, the `1' toggle
              is On and all cpu information is gathered in a single line.
              Otherwise, each cpu is  displayed  separately  as:  `%Cpu0,
              %Cpu1, ...'  up to available screen height.

          2  :NUMA-Nodes/Cpu-Summary toggle
              This  command  toggles  between the `1' command cpu summary
              display (only) or a summary display plus the cpu usage sta-
              tistics for each NUMA Node.  It is only available if a sys-
              tem has the requisite NUMA support.

          3  :Expand-NUMA-Node
              You will be invited to enter a number representing  a  NUMA
              Node.   Thereafter,  a node summary plus the statistics for
              each cpu in that node will be shown until either the `1' or
              `2' command toggle is pressed.  This interactive command is
              only available if a system has the requisite NUMA support.

       Note: If the entire summary area has been toggled Off for any win-
       dow,  you  would be left with just the message line.  In that way,
       APPEARANCE of task window

          J  :Justify-Numeric-Columns toggle
              Alternates  between right-justified (the default) and left-
              justified numeric data.  If  the  numeric  data  completely
              fills  the available column, this command toggle may impact
              the column header only.

          j  :Justify-Character-Columns toggle
              Alternates between left-justified (the default) and  right-
              justified character data.  If the character data completely
              fills the available column, this command toggle may  impact
              the column header only.

         The  following  commands will also be influenced by the state of
         the global `B' (bold enable) toggle.

          b  :Bold/Reverse toggle
              This command will impact how the `x' and  `y'  toggles  are
              displayed.   It may also impact the summary area when a bar
              graph has been selected for cpu states or memory usage  via
              the 't' or 'm' toggles.

          x  :Column-Highlight toggle
              Changes  highlighting  for  the current sort field.  If you
              forget which field is being sorted this command  can  serve
              as  a  quick  visual  reminder, providing the sort field is
              being displayed.  The  sort  field  might  not  be  visible
              because:
                  1) there is insufficient Screen Width
                  2) the `f' interactive command turned it Off

              Note:  Whenever  Searching and/or Other Filtering is active
              in a window, column highlighting is  temporarily  disabled.
              See  the  notes  at the end of topics 5d. SEARCHING and 5e.
              FILTERING for an explanation why.

          y  :Row-Highlight toggle
              Changes highlighting for "running" tasks.   For  additional
              insight into this task state, see topic 3a. DESCRIPTIONS of
              Fields, the `S' field (Process Status).

              Use of this provision provides important insight into  your
              system's  health.   The only costs will be a few additional
              tty escape sequences.

              column is currently visible.  Later, should that field come
              into view, the change you applied will be seen.

          f | F  :Fields-Management
              These keys display a separate screen where you  can  change
              which  fields are displayed, their order and also designate
              the sort field.  For additional information on these inter-
              active commands see topic 3b. MANAGING Fields.

          o | O  :Other-Filtering
              You  will be prompted for the selection criteria which then
              determines which tasks will be shown in the `current'  win-
              dow.   Your criteria can be made case sensitive or case can
              be ignored.  And you determine if  top  should  include  or
              exclude matching tasks.

              See  topic  5e.  FILTERING in a window for details on these
              and additional related interactive commands.

          S  :Cumulative-Time-Mode toggle
              When Cumulative mode is On, each process is listed with the
              cpu time that it and its dead children have used.

              When  Off, programs that fork into many separate tasks will
              appear less demanding.  For programs like `init' or a shell
              this is appropriate but for others, like compilers, perhaps
              not.  Experiment with two task  windows  sharing  the  same
              sort field but with different `S' states and see which rep-
              resentation you prefer.

              After issuing this command, you'll be informed of  the  new
              state  of  this  toggle.   If  you  wish to know in advance
              whether or not Cumulative mode is in effect, simply ask for
              help and view the window summary on the second line.

          u | U  :Show-Specific-User-Only
              You  will  be  prompted  for the uid or name of the user to
              display.  The -u option matches on  effective user  whereas
              the  -U option matches on any user (real, effective, saved,
              or filesystem).

              Thereafter, in that task window only matching users will be
              shown,  or possibly no processes will be shown.  Prepending
              an exclamation point ('!') to the user id or name instructs
              top  to  display only processes with users not matching the
              one provided.

              Different task windows can  be  used  to  filter  different
              forest  view  mode  in the `current' window.  See topic 4c.
              TASK AREA Commands, SORTING for information on those keys.

       SIZE of task window

          i  :Idle-Process toggle
              Displays all tasks or just active tasks.  When this  toggle
              is  Off,  tasks  that  have not used any CPU since the last
              update will not be displayed.  However, due to  the  granu-
              larity  of  the  %CPU  and TIME+ fields, some processes may
              still be displayed that appear to have used no CPU.

              If this command is applied to the last task display when in
              alternate-display  mode,  then  it will not affect the win-
              dow's size, as all prior task displays  will  have  already
              been painted.

          n | #  :Set-Maximum-Tasks
              You  will  be prompted to enter the number of tasks to dis-
              play.  The lessor of your number and available screen  rows
              will be used.

              When  used  in  alternate-display mode, this is the command
              that gives you precise control over the size of  each  cur-
              rently  visible task display, except for the very last.  It
              will not affect the last window's size, as all  prior  task
              displays will have already been painted.

              Note:  If you wish to increase the size of the last visible
              task  display  when  in  alternate-display   mode,   simply
              decrease the size of the task display(s) above it.

       SORTING of task window

          For  compatibility,  this  top  supports most of the former top
          sort keys.  Since this is primarily a  service  to  former  top
          users, these commands do not appear on any help screen.
                command   sorted-field                  supported
                A         start time (non-display)      No
                M         %MEM                          Yes
                N         PID                           Yes
                P         %CPU                          Yes
                T         TIME+                         Yes

          Before using any of the following sort provisions, top suggests
          that you temporarily turn on column highlighting using the  `x'
          interactive  command.   That  will  help ensure that the actual
          sort environment matches your intent.

                 sort field is the last field being displayed.

          The following  interactive  commands  will  always  be  honored
          whether or not the current sort field is visible.

             f | F  :Fields-Management
                 These  keys  display  a  separate  screen  where you can
                 change which field is used as  the  sort  column,  among
                 other functions.  This can be a convenient way to simply
                 verify the current sort field,  when  running  top  with
                 column highlighting turned Off.

             R  :Reverse/Normal-Sort-Field toggle
                 Using this interactive command you can alternate between
                 high-to-low and low-to-high sorts.

          Note: Field sorting uses internal values, not those  in  column
          display.   Thus,  the  TTY and WCHAN fields will violate strict
          ASCII collating sequence.

   4d. COLOR Mapping
       When you issue the `Z' interactive command, you will be  presented
       with  a  separate  screen.   That screen can be used to change the
       colors in just the `current' window or in all four windows  before
       returning to the top display.

       The following interactive commands are available.
           4 upper case letters to select a target
           8 numbers to select a color
           normal toggles available
               B         :bold disable/enable
               b         :running tasks "bold"/reverse
               z         :color/mono
           other commands available
               a/w       :apply, then go to next/prior
               <Enter>   :apply and exit
               q         :abandon current changes and exit

       If  you use `a' or `w' to cycle the targeted window, you will have
       applied the color scheme that was displayed  when  you  left  that
       window.  You can, of course, easily return to any window and reap-
       ply different colors or turn colors Off completely  with  the  `z'
       toggle.

       The  Color Mapping screen can also be used to change the `current'
       window/field group in either full-screen mode or alternate-display
          now be made visible simultaneously, or can be turned Off  indi-
          vidually at your command.

          The  summary area will always exist, even if it's only the mes-
          sage line.  At any given time only one summary area can be dis-
          played.   However,  depending  on your commands, there could be
          from zero to four separate task displays currently  showing  on
          the screen.

       Current Window:
          The  `current' window is the window associated with the summary
          area and the window to which task related commands  are  always
          directed.   Since  in alternate-display mode you can toggle the
          task display Off, some commands might  be  restricted  for  the
          `current' window.

          A  further  complication arises when you have toggled the first
          summary area line Off.  With the loss of the window  name  (the
          `l'  toggled  line),  you'll not easily know what window is the
          `current' window.

   5b. COMMANDS for Windows
          - | _  :Show/Hide-Window(s) toggles
              The `-' key turns the `current' window's  task  display  On
              and  Off.   When  On, that task area will show a minimum of
              the columns header you've established with the `f' interac-
              tive  command.   It  will  also reflect any other task area
              options/toggles you've applied yielding zero or more tasks.

              The `_' key does the same for all task displays.  In  other
              words,  it switches between the currently visible task dis-
              play(s) and any task display(s) you had  toggled  Off.   If
              all 4 task displays are currently visible, this interactive
              command will leave the summary area  as  the  only  display
              element.

       *  = | +  :Equalize-(reinitialize)-Window(s)
              The  `='  key forces the `current' window's task display to
              be visible.  It also reverses any  `i'  (idle  tasks),  `n'
              (max  tasks),  `u/U' (user filter) and `o/O' (other filter)
              commands that might be active.  Also,  if  the  window  had
              been  scrolled,  it  will  be reset with this command.  See
              topic 5c. SCROLLING a  Window  for  additional  information
              regarding vertical and horizontal scrolling.

              The  `+'  key does the same for all windows.  The four task
              displays will reappear, evenly balanced.   They  will  also
              have   retained   any  customizations  you  had  previously
              applied, except for the `i' (idle tasks), `n' (max  tasks),
              `u/U'  (user  filter),  `o/O'  (other filter) and scrolling
              This will  change  the  `current'  window,  which  in  turn
              changes  the  window to which commands are directed.  These
              keys act in a circular fashion so you can reach any desired
              window using either key.

              Assuming  the  window name is visible (you have not toggled
              `l' Off), whenever the  `current'  window  name  loses  its
              emphasis/color,  that's  a reminder the task display is Off
              and many commands will be restricted.

       *  g  :Choose-Another-Window/Field-Group
              You will be prompted to enter a number between 1 and 4 des-
              ignating the field group which should be made the `current'
              window.

              In full-screen mode, this command is necessary to alter the
              `current'  window.  In alternate-display mode, it is simply
              a less convenient alternative to the `a' and `w' commands.

          G  :Change-Window/Field-Group-Name
              You will be prompted for a new name to be  applied  to  the
              `current' window.  It does not require that the window name
              be visible (the `l' toggle to be On).

       *  The interactive commands shown with an asterisk (`*') have  use
          beyond alternate-display mode.
              =, A, g    are always available
              a, w       act the same with color mapping
                         and fields management

   5c. SCROLLING a Window
       Typically  a  task window is a partial view into a systems's total
       tasks/threads which shows only some of the  available  fields/col-
       umns.   With  these  scrolling keys, you can move that view verti-
       cally or horizontally to reveal any desired task or column.

       Up,PgUp  :Scroll-Tasks
           Move the view up toward the first task row,  until  the  first
           task  is displayed at the top of the `current' window.  The Up
           arrow key moves a single line while PgUp  scrolls  the  entire
           window.

       Down,PgDn  :Scroll-Tasks
           Move  the  view  down toward the last task row, until the last
           task is the only task displayed at the top  of  the  `current'
           window.   The  Down  arrow  key moves a single line while PgDn
           that field is reached via the right arrow key, and is thus the
           only  column  shown,  you  can continue scrolling horizontally
           within such a field.  See the `C'  interactive  command  below
           for additional information.

       Home  :Jump-to-Home-Position
           Reposition the display to the un-scrolled coordinates.

       End  :Jump-to-End-Position
           Reposition  the  display so that the rightmost column reflects
           the last displayable field and the bottom task row  represents
           the last task.

           Note:  From  this position it is still possible to scroll down
           and right using the arrow keys.  This is true until  a  single
           column and a single task is left as the only display element.

       C  :Show-scroll-coordinates toggle
           Toggle  an  informational  message which is displayed whenever
           the message line is not otherwise being  used.   That  message
           will take one of two forms depending on whether or not a vari-
           able width column has also been scrolled.

             scroll coordinates: y = n/n (tasks), x = n/n (fields)
             scroll coordinates: y = n/n (tasks), x = n/n (fields) + nn

           The coordinates shown as n/n are relative to  the  upper  left
           corner  of the `current' window.  The additional `+ nn' repre-
           sents the displacement into a variable width  column  when  it
           has  been  scrolled horizontally.  Such displacement occurs in
           normal 8 character tab stop amounts via  the  right  and  left
           arrow keys.

           y = n/n (tasks)
               The  first  n  represents  the topmost visible task and is
               controlled by scrolling keys.  The  second  n  is  updated
               automatically to reflect total tasks.

           x = n/n (fields)
               The  first  n represents the leftmost displayed column and
               is controlled by scrolling keys.   The  second  n  is  the
               total number of displayable fields and is established with
               the `f' interactive command.

       The above interactive commands are always available in full-screen
       mode  but  never  available in alternate-display mode if the `cur-
           You will be prompted for the case-sensitive string  to  locate
           starting  from  the  current window coordinates.  There are no
           restrictions on search string content.

           Searches are not limited to values from a single field or col-
           umn.  All of the values displayed in a task row are allowed in
           a search string.  You may include spaces, numbers, symbols and
           even forest view artwork.

           Keying  <Enter> with no input will effectively disable the `&'
           key until a new search string is entered.

       &  :Locate-next
           Assuming a  search  string  has  been  established,  top  will
           attempt to locate the next occurrence.

       When  a  match is found, the current window is repositioned verti-
       cally so the task row containing that string is first.  The scroll
       coordinates  message  can  provide  confirmation  of such vertical
       repositioning  (see  the  `C'  interactive  command).   Horizontal
       scrolling, however, is never altered via searching.

       The  availability  of  a matching string will be influenced by the
       following factors.

          a. Which fields are displayable from the total available,
             see topic 3b. MANAGING Fields.

          b. Scrolling a window vertically and/or horizontally,
             see topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window.

          c. The state of the command/command-line toggle,
             see the `c' interactive command.

          d. The stability of the chosen sort column,
             for example PID is good but %CPU bad.

       If  a  search  fails,  restoring   the   `current'   window   home
       (unscrolled) position, scrolling horizontally, displaying command-
       lines or choosing a more stable sort field  could  yet  produce  a
       successful `&' search.

       The above interactive commands are always available in full-screen
       mode but never available in alternate-display mode  if  the  `cur-
       rent' window's task display has been toggled Off.

       Note:  Whenever a Search is active in a window, top will turn col-
       umn highlighting Off to prevent false matches on internal non-dis-
       play  escape sequences.  Such highlighting will be restored when a

       Filter Basics

          1. field names are case sensitive and spelled as in the header

          2. selection values need not comprise the full displayed field

          3. a selection is either case insensitive or sensitive to case

          4. the default is inclusion, prepending `!' denotes exclusions

          5. multiple selection criteria can be applied to a task window

          6. inclusion and exclusion criteria can be used simultaneously

          7. the 1 equality and 2 relational filters can be freely mixed

          8. separate unique filters are maintained for each task window

          If  a  field is not turned on or is not currently in view, then
          your selection criteria will not affect  the  display.   Later,
          should  a filtered field become visible, the selection criteria
          will then be applied.

       Keyboard Summary

         o  :Other-Filter (lower case)
             You will be prompted to establish a filter that ignores case
             when matching.

         O  :Other-Filter (upper case)
             You will be prompted to establish a case sensitive filter.

        ^O  :Show-Active-Filters (Ctrl key + `o')
             This  can serve as a reminder of which filters are active in
             the `current' window.  A summary will be shown on  the  mes-
             sage line until you press the <Enter> key.

         =  :Reset-Filtering in current window
             This  clears all of your selection criteria in the `current'
             window.  It also has additional impact so please  see  topic
             4a. GLOBAL Commands.

         +  :Reset-Filtering in all windows
             This  clears the selection criteria in all windows, assuming
             you are in alternate-display mode.  As with the `=' interac-
             tive  command,  it  too  has  additional consequences so you
             might wish to see topic 5b. COMMANDS for Windows.

          one of either equality (`=') or relation (`<' or `>').

          The  `='  equality  operator  requires only a partial match and
          that can reduce your `if-value' input requirements.  The `>' or
          `<' relational operators always employ string comparisons, even
          with numeric fields.  They are designed to work with a  field's
          default  justification  and  with  homogeneous data.  When some
          field's numeric amounts have been subjected  to  scaling  while
          others have not, that data is no longer homogeneous.

          If  you  establish a relational filter and you have changed the
          default Numeric or  Character  justification,  that  filter  is
          likely  to fail.  When a relational filter is applied to a mem-
          ory field and you have not changed the scaling, it may  produce
          misleading   results.    This  happens,  for  example,  because
          `100.0m' (MiB) would appear greater than  `1.000g'  (GiB)  when
          compared as strings.

          If your filtered results appear suspect, simply altering justi-
          fication or scaling may yet achieve the desired objective.  See
          the `j', `J' and `e' interactive commands for additional infor-
          mation.

       Potential Problems

          These GROUP filters could produce the exact same results or the
          second one might not display anything at all, just a blank task
          window.
               GROUP=root        ( only the same results when )
               GROUP=ROOT        ( invoked via lower case `o' )

          Either of these RES filters  might  yield  inconsistent  and/or
          misleading  results,  depending  on  the current memory scaling
          factor.  Or both filters could produce the exact same results.
               RES>9999          ( only the same results when )
               !RES<10000        ( memory scaling is at `KiB' )

          This nMin filter  illustrates  a  problem  unique  to  scalable
          fields.   This particular field can display a maximum of 4 dig-
          its, beyond which values are automatically  scaled  to  KiB  or
          above.   So  while  amounts  greater than 9999 exist, they will
          appear as 2.6m, 197k, etc.
               nMin>9999         ( always a blank task window )

       Potential Solutions

          These examples illustrate how Other Filtering can be creatively
          applied  to  achieve  almost any desired result.  Single quotes
          are sometimes shown to delimit the spaces which are part  of  a
          filter  or  to  represent a request for status (^O) accurately.
          But if you used them with if-values in real  life,  no  matches
          would be found.
          request  key (^O).  In reality, each filter would have required
          separate input.  The PR example shows the two  concurrent  fil-
          ters  necessary to display tasks with priorities of 20 or more,
          since some might be negative.  Then by exploiting trailing spa-
          ces, the nMin series of filters could achieve the failed `9999'
          objective discussed above.
               `PR>20' + `!PR=-'         ( 2 for right result )
               `!nMin=0 ' + `!nMin=1 ' + `!nMin=2 ' + `!nMin=3 ' ...

       Note: Whenever Other Filtering is active in  a  window,  top  will
       turn  column highlighting Off to prevent false matches on internal
       non-display escape sequences.  Such highlighting will be  restored
       when  a  window  is  no  longer subject to filtering.  See the `x'
       interactive command for  additional  information  on  sort  column
       highlighting.


6. FILES

   6a. SYSTEM Configuration File
       The presence of this file will influence which version of the help
       screen is shown to an ordinary user.  More  importantly,  it  will
       limit  what  ordinary users are allowed to do when top is running.
       They will not be able to issue the following commands.
           k        Kill a task
           r        Renice a task
           d or s   Change delay/sleep interval

       The system configuration file is not created by top.  Rather,  you
       create this file manually and place it in the /etc directory.  Its
       name must be `toprc' and must have no leading  `.'  (period).   It
       must have only two lines.

       Here is an example of the contents of /etc/toprc:
           s        # line 1: secure mode switch
           5.0      # line 2: delay interval in seconds

   6b. PERSONAL Configuration File
       This  file is written as `$HOME/.your-name-4-top' + `rc'.  Use the
       `W' interactive command to create it or update it.

       Here is the general layout:
           global   # line  1: the program name/alias notation
             "      # line  2: id,altscr,irixps,delay,curwin
           per ea   # line  a: winname,fieldscur
           window   # line  b: winflags,sortindx,maxtasks,graph modes
             "      # line  c: summclr,msgsclr,headclr,taskclr
           global   # line 15: additional miscellaneous settings
             "      # any remaining lines are devoted to the
             "      # generalized inspect provisions
             "      # discussed below


       Inspect  entries can be added with a redirected echo or by editing
       the configuration file.  Redirecting an echo risks overwriting the
       rcfile should it replace (>) rather than append (>>) to that file.
       Conversely, when using an editor care must be taken not to corrupt
       existing  lines,  some  of  which will contain unprintable data or
       unusual characters.

       Those Inspect entries beginning with a `#' character are  ignored,
       regardless  of content.  Otherwise they consist of the following 3
       elements, each of which must be separated by a tab character (thus
       2 `\t' total):

         .type:  literal `file' or `pipe'
         .name:  selection shown on the Inspect screen
         .fmts:  string representing a path or command

       The  two  types of Inspect entries are not interchangeable.  Those
       designated `file' will be accessed using fopen and must  reference
       a  single  file in the `.fmts' element.  Entries specifying `pipe'
       will employ  popen,  their  `.fmts'  element  could  contain  many
       pipelined commands and, none can be interactive.

       If the file or pipeline represented in your `.fmts' deals with the
       specific PID input or accepted  when  prompted,  then  the  format
       string  must  also  contain  the `%d' specifier, as these examples
       illustrate.

         .fmts=  /proc/%d/numa_maps
         .fmts=  lsof -P -p %d

       For `pipe' type entries only, you may also wish to redirect stderr
       to stdout for a more comprehensive result.  Thus the format string
       becomes:

         .fmts=  pmap -x %d 2>&1

       Here are examples of both types of Inspect entries as  they  might
       appear  in the rcfile.  The first entry will be ignored due to the
       initial `#' character.  For clarity,  the  pseudo  tab  depictions
       (^I)  are  surrounded  by an extra space but the actual tabs would
       not be.

         # pipe ^I Sockets ^I lsof -n -P -i 2>&1
         pipe ^I Open Files ^I lsof -P -p %d 2>&1
         file ^I NUMA Info ^I /proc/%d/numa_maps
         pipe ^I Log ^I tail -n100 /var/log/syslog | sort -Mr

       Except for the commented entry above,  these  next  examples  show
       what  could  be  echoed  to  achieve similar results, assuming the
       rcfile name was `.toprc'.  However, due to the embedded tab  char-
       acters,  each of these lines should be preceded by `/bin/echo -e',
         # next would have contained `\t' ...
         # file ^I <your_name> ^I /proc/%d/status
         # but this will eliminate embedded `\t' ...
         pipe ^I <your_name> ^I cat /proc/%d/status | expand -

       The above example takes what could have been a  `file'  entry  but
       employs a `pipe' instead so as to expand the embedded tabs.

       Note:  While  `pipe'  type entries have been discussed in terms of
       pipelines and commands, there  is  nothing  to  prevent  you  from
       including   shell  scripts  as  well.   Perhaps even newly created
       scripts designed specifically for the `Y' interactive command.

       Lastly, as the number of your Inspect entries grows over time, the
       `Options:'  row  will  be truncated when screen width is exceeded.
       That does not affect operation other than to make some  selections
       invisible.

       However,  if  some  choices are lost to truncation but you want to
       see more options, there is an easy solution hinted at below.

         Inspection Pause at pid ...
         Use:  left/right then <Enter> ...
         Options:  help  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11 ...

       The entries in the top rcfile would have a number for the  `.name'
       element  and the `help' entry would identify a shell script you've
       written explaining what those numbered selections  actually  mean.
       In that way, many more choices can be made visible.


7. STUPID TRICKS Sampler

       Many  of  these  tricks  work  best when you give top a scheduling
       boost.  So plan on starting him with a nice value of -10, assuming
       you've got the authority.

   7a. Kernel Magic
       For these stupid tricks, top needs full-screen mode.

       o  The  user  interface,  through  prompts and help, intentionally
          implies that the delay interval is limited to tenths of a  sec-
          ond.   However,  you're  free to set any desired delay.  If you
          want to see Linux at his scheduling best, try a  delay  of  .09
          seconds or less.

          For this experiment, under x-windows open an xterm and maximize
          it.  Then do the following:
            . provide a scheduling boost and tiny delay via:
                nice -n -10 top -d.09
            . keep sorted column highlighting Off so as to

          delay interval to around .3 seconds.

          After bringing the most active processes into view, what you'll
          see are the ghostly images of just the currently running tasks.

       o  Delete the existing rcfile, or create  a  new  symlink.   Start
          this  new  version  then  type `T' (a secret key, see topic 4c.
          Task Area Commands, SORTING) followed by `W' and `q'.  Finally,
          restart the program with -d0 (zero delay).

          Your  display  will be refreshed at three times the rate of the
          former top, a 300% speed advantage.  As  top  climbs  the  TIME
          ladder,  be  as patient as you can while speculating on whether
          or not top will ever reach the top.

   7b. Bouncing Windows
       For these stupid tricks, top needs alternate-display mode.

       o  With 3 or 4 task displays visible, pick any window  other  than
          the last and turn idle processes Off using the `i' command tog-
          gle.  Depending on where you  applied  `i',  sometimes  several
          task  displays  are  bouncing and sometimes it's like an accor-
          dion, as top tries his best to allocate space.

       o  Set each window's summary lines differently: one with no memory
          ('m');  another with no states ('t'); maybe one with nothing at
          all, just the message line.  Then hold  down  `a'  or  `w'  and
          watch a variation on bouncing windows  --  hopping windows.

       o  Display all 4 windows and for each, in turn, set idle processes
          to Off using the `i' command toggle.  You've just  entered  the
          "extreme bounce" zone.

   7c. The Big Bird Window
       This stupid trick also requires alternate-display mode.

       o  Display all 4 windows and make sure that 1:Def is the `current'
          window.  Then, keep increasing window size with the `n'  inter-
          active  command  until  all the other task displays are "pushed
          out of the nest".

          When they've all  been  displaced,  toggle  between  all  visi-
          ble/invisible  windows using the `_' command toggle.  Then pon-
          der this:
             is top fibbing or telling honestly your imposed truth?

          You may have to resize your xterm to produce truncation.

          Lastly, use the `j' command toggle to make the  COMMAND  column
          right justified.

          Now  use the right arrow key to reach the COMMAND column.  Con-
          tinuing with the right arrow key, watch closely  the  direction
          of travel for the command lines being shown.

             some lines travel left, while others travel right

             eventually all lines will Switcheroo, and move right


8. BUGS

       To report bugs, follow the instructions at:
           http://www.debian.org/Bugs/Reporting


9. HISTORY Former top

       The  original  top  was  written  by  Roger Binns, based on Branko
       Lankester's <lankeste@fwi.uva.nl> ps program.

       Robert Nation <nation@rocket.sanders.lockheed.com> adapted it  for
       the proc file system.

       Helmut  Geyer  <Helmut.Geyer@iwr.uni-heidelberg.de>  added support
       for configurable fields.

       Plus many other individuals contributed over the years.


10. AUTHOR

       This entirely new and enhanced replacement was written by:
           Jim Warner, <james.warner@comcast.net>

       With invaluable help from:
           Craig Small, <csmall@enc.com.au>
           Albert Cahalan, <albert@users.sf.net>


11. SEE Also

       free(1), ps(1), uptime(1), atop(1), slabtop(1), vmstat(8), w(1).


procps-ng July 2014 TOP(1)



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