Home : Computers : Linux : Man Pages : read

read

       enable,  eval,  exec, exit, export, false, fc, fg, getopts, hash, help,
       history, jobs, kill, let, local, logout, mapfile, popd, printf,  pushd,
       pwd,  read, readonly, return, set, shift, shopt, source, suspend, test,
       times, trap, true, type, typeset, ulimit, umask, unalias, unset, wait -
       bash built-in commands, see bash(1)


BASH BUILTIN COMMANDS

       Unless otherwise noted, each builtin command documented in this section
       as accepting options preceded by - accepts -- to signify the end of the
       options.   The  :, true, false, and test builtins do not accept options
       and do not treat -- specially.  The exit, logout, break, continue, let,
       and  shift builtins accept and process arguments beginning with - with-
       out requiring --.  Other builtins that accept  arguments  but  are  not
       specified  as accepting options interpret arguments beginning with - as
       invalid options and require -- to prevent this interpretation.
       : [arguments]
              No effect; the command does nothing beyond  expanding  arguments
              and  performing any specified redirections.  A zero exit code is
              returned.

        .  filename [arguments]
       source filename [arguments]
              Read and execute commands from filename  in  the  current  shell
              environment  and return the exit status of the last command exe-
              cuted from filename.  If filename does not contain a slash, file
              names  in  PATH  are used to find the directory containing file-
              name.  The file searched for in PATH  need  not  be  executable.
              When  bash  is  not  in  posix  mode,  the  current directory is
              searched if no file is found in PATH.  If the sourcepath  option
              to  the  shopt  builtin  command  is turned off, the PATH is not
              searched.  If any arguments are supplied, they become the  posi-
              tional  parameters  when  filename  is  executed.  Otherwise the
              positional parameters are unchanged.  The return status  is  the
              status  of  the  last  command exited within the script (0 if no
              commands are executed), and false if filename is  not  found  or
              cannot be read.

       alias [-p] [name[=value] ...]
              Alias with no arguments or with the -p option prints the list of
              aliases in the form alias name=value on standard  output.   When
              arguments  are supplied, an alias is defined for each name whose
              value is given.  A trailing space in  value causes the next word
              to be checked for alias substitution when the alias is expanded.
              For each name in the argument list for which no  value  is  sup-
              plied,  the  name  and  value  of  the  alias is printed.  Alias
              returns true unless a name is given for which no alias has  been
              defined.

       bg [jobspec ...]
              Resume  each  suspended  job jobspec in the background, as if it
              had been started with &.  If jobspec is not present, the shell's
              notion  of the current job is used.  bg jobspec returns 0 unless
              as a separate argument; e.g.,  '"\C-x\C-r":  re-read-init-file'.
              Options, if supplied, have the following meanings:
              -m keymap
                     Use keymap as the keymap to be affected by the subsequent
                     bindings.  Acceptable keymap names are emacs, emacs-stan-
                     dard,  emacs-meta,  emacs-ctlx,  vi, vi-move, vi-command,
                     and vi-insert.  vi is equivalent to vi-command; emacs  is
                     equivalent to emacs-standard.
              -l     List the names of all readline functions.
              -p     Display  readline  function  names and bindings in such a
                     way that they can be re-read.
              -P     List current readline function names and bindings.
              -s     Display readline key sequences bound to  macros  and  the
                     strings  they  output  in such a way that they can be re-
                     read.
              -S     Display readline key sequences bound to  macros  and  the
                     strings they output.
              -v     Display  readline variable names and values in such a way
                     that they can be re-read.
              -V     List current readline variable names and values.
              -f filename
                     Read key bindings from filename.
              -q function
                     Query about which keys invoke the named function.
              -u function
                     Unbind all keys bound to the named function.
              -r keyseq
                     Remove any current binding for keyseq.
              -x keyseq:shell-command
                     Cause shell-command to be  executed  whenever  keyseq  is
                     entered.   When shell-command is executed, the shell sets
                     the READLINE_LINE variable to the contents of  the  read-
                     line  line  buffer and the READLINE_POINT variable to the
                     current location of the insertion point.  If the executed
                     command  changes  the  value  of  READLINE_LINE  or READ-
                     LINE_POINT, those new values will  be  reflected  in  the
                     editing state.

              The  return value is 0 unless an unrecognized option is given or
              an error occurred.

       break [n]
              Exit from within a for, while, until, or select loop.  If  n  is
              specified,  break  n  levels.   n must be >= 1.  If n is greater
              than the number of enclosing  loops,  all  enclosing  loops  are
              exited.  The return value is non-zero when n is <= 0; Otherwise,
              break returns 0 value.

       builtin shell-builtin [arguments]
              Execute the specified shell builtin, passing it  arguments,  and
              return its exit status.  This is useful when defining a function
              whose name is the same as a shell builtin, retaining  the  func-
              routine call or expr does not correspond to a valid position  in
              the call stack.

       cd [-L|[-P [-e]]] [dir]
              Change  the  current directory to dir.  The variable HOME is the
              default dir.  The variable CDPATH defines the  search  path  for
              the  directory  containing  dir.  Alternative directory names in
              CDPATH are separated by a colon (:).  A null directory  name  in
              CDPATH  is  the  same as the current directory, i.e., ``.''.  If
              dir begins with a slash (/), then CDPATH is  not  used.  The  -P
              option  says  to use the physical directory structure instead of
              following symbolic links (see also the  -P  option  to  the  set
              builtin command); the -L option forces symbolic links to be fol-
              lowed.  If the -e option is supplied with -P,  and  the  current
              working directory cannot be successfully determined after a suc-
              cessful directory change, cd will return an unsuccessful status.
              An  argument  of  -  is  equivalent  to $OLDPWD.  If a non-empty
              directory name from CDPATH is used, or if - is the  first  argu-
              ment, and the directory change is successful, the absolute path-
              name of the new working directory is  written  to  the  standard
              output.   The return value is true if the directory was success-
              fully changed; false otherwise.

       command [-pVv] command [arg ...]
              Run command with args  suppressing  the  normal  shell  function
              lookup.  Only builtin commands or commands found in the PATH are
              executed.  If the -p option is given, the search for command  is
              performed  using  a default value for PATH that is guaranteed to
              find all of the standard utilities.  If  either  the  -V  or  -v
              option is supplied, a description of command is printed.  The -v
              option causes a single word indicating the command or file  name
              used to invoke command to be displayed; the -V option produces a
              more verbose description.  If the -V or -v option  is  supplied,
              the  exit  status  is  0 if command was found, and 1 if not.  If
              neither option is supplied and an error occurred or command can-
              not  be found, the exit status is 127.  Otherwise, the exit sta-
              tus of the command builtin is the exit status of command.

       compgen [option] [word]
              Generate possible completion matches for word according  to  the
              options,  which  may  be  any  option  accepted  by the complete
              builtin with the exception of -p and -r, and write  the  matches
              to  the  standard  output.  When using the -F or -C options, the
              various shell  variables  set  by  the  programmable  completion
              facilities, while available, will not have useful values.

              The matches will be generated in the same way as if the program-
              mable completion code had generated them directly from a comple-
              tion  specification  with the same flags.  If word is specified,
              only those completions matching word will be displayed.

              The return value is true unless an invalid option  is  supplied,
              for which no completion has previously  been  defined.   The  -E
              option  indicates  that the remaining options and actions should
              apply to  ``empty''  command  completion;  that  is,  completion
              attempted on a blank line.

              The  process  of  applying  these completion specifications when
              word completion is attempted is described above  under  Program-
              mable Completion.

              Other  options,  if specified, have the following meanings.  The
              arguments to the -G, -W, and -X options (and, if necessary,  the
              -P  and -S options) should be quoted to protect them from expan-
              sion before the complete builtin is invoked.
              -o comp-option
                      The comp-option controls several aspects  of  the  comp-
                      spec's  behavior beyond the simple generation of comple-
                      tions.  comp-option may be one of:
                      bashdefault
                              Perform the rest of the default bash completions
                              if the compspec generates no matches.
                      default Use  readline's  default  filename completion if
                              the compspec generates no matches.
                      dirnames
                              Perform directory name completion if  the  comp-
                              spec generates no matches.
                      filenames
                              Tell  readline that the compspec generates file-
                              names, so it can perform  any  filename-specific
                              processing  (like  adding  a  slash to directory
                              names, quoting special characters, or  suppress-
                              ing  trailing spaces).  Intended to be used with
                              shell functions.
                      nospace Tell  readline  not  to  append  a  space   (the
                              default)  to  words  completed at the end of the
                              line.
                      plusdirs
                              After any matches defined by  the  compspec  are
                              generated,    directory   name   completion   is
                              attempted and  any  matches  are  added  to  the
                              results of the other actions.
              -A action
                      The  action  may  be  one of the following to generate a
                      list of possible completions:
                      alias   Alias names.  May also be specified as -a.
                      arrayvar
                              Array variable names.
                      binding Readline key binding names.
                      builtin Names of shell builtin commands.   May  also  be
                              specified as -b.
                      command Command names.  May also be specified as -c.
                      directory
                              Directory names.  May also be specified as -d.

                      job     Job  names,  if job control is active.  May also
                              be specified as -j.
                      keyword Shell reserved words.  May also be specified  as
                              -k.
                      running Names of running jobs, if job control is active.
                      service Service names.  May also be specified as -s.
                      setopt  Valid  arguments  for  the  -o option to the set
                              builtin.
                      shopt   Shell option names  as  accepted  by  the  shopt
                              builtin.
                      signal  Signal names.
                      stopped Names of stopped jobs, if job control is active.
                      user    User names.  May also be specified as -u.
                      variable
                              Names of all shell variables.  May also be spec-
                              ified as -v.
              -C command
                      command is executed in a subshell environment,  and  its
                      output is used as the possible completions.
              -F function
                      The  shell  function function is executed in the current
                      shell environment.  When it finishes, the possible  com-
                      pletions  are  retrieved from the value of the COMPREPLY
                      array variable.
              -G globpat
                      The pathname expansion pattern globpat  is  expanded  to
                      generate the possible completions.
              -P prefix
                      prefix  is  added at the beginning of each possible com-
                      pletion after all other options have been applied.
              -S suffix
                      suffix is appended to each possible completion after all
                      other options have been applied.
              -W wordlist
                      The  wordlist  is  split using the characters in the IFS
                      special variable as delimiters, and each resultant  word
                      is  expanded.   The possible completions are the members
                      of the resultant list which match the  word  being  com-
                      pleted.
              -X filterpat
                      filterpat  is  a pattern as used for pathname expansion.
                      It is applied to the list of possible completions gener-
                      ated  by  the  preceding options and arguments, and each
                      completion matching filterpat is removed from the  list.
                      A  leading  !  in filterpat negates the pattern; in this
                      case, any completion not matching filterpat is removed.

              The return value is true unless an invalid option  is  supplied,
              an  option  other than -p or -r is supplied without a name argu-
              ment, an attempt is made to remove  a  completion  specification
              for a name for which no specification exists, or an error occurs
              adding a completion specification.
              The return value is true unless an invalid option  is  supplied,
              an attempt is made to modify the options for a name for which no
              completion specification exists, or an output error occurs.

       continue [n]
              Resume the next iteration of the enclosing for, while, until, or
              select  loop.   If  n  is specified, resume at the nth enclosing
              loop.  n must be >= 1.  If n  is  greater  than  the  number  of
              enclosing  loops,  the  last  enclosing  loop (the ``top-level''
              loop) is resumed.  When continue is executed inside of loop, the
              return  value  is  non-zero  when n is <= 0; Otherwise, continue
              returns 0 value. When continue is executed outside of loop,  the
              return value is 0.

       declare [-aAfFgilrtux] [-p] [name[=value] ...]
       typeset [-aAfFgilrtux] [-p] [name[=value] ...]
              Declare  variables and/or give them attributes.  If no names are
              given then display the values of variables.  The -p option  will
              display the attributes and values of each name.  When -p is used
              with name arguments, additional options are ignored.  When -p is
              supplied  without name arguments, it will display the attributes
              and values of all variables having the attributes  specified  by
              the  additional  options.  If no other options are supplied with
              -p, declare will display the attributes and values of all  shell
              variables.   The  -f  option  will restrict the display to shell
              functions.  The -F option inhibits the display of function defi-
              nitions;  only the function name and attributes are printed.  If
              the extdebug shell option is enabled  using  shopt,  the  source
              file name and line number where the function is defined are dis-
              played as well.  The -F option implies -f.  The -g option forces
              variables  to  be  created or modified at the global scope, even
              when declare is executed in a shell function.  It is ignored  in
              all  other cases.  The following options can be used to restrict
              output to variables with the  specified  attribute  or  to  give
              variables attributes:
              -a     Each  name  is  an  indexed  array  variable  (see Arrays
                     above).
              -A     Each name is an associative array  variable  (see  Arrays
                     above).
              -f     Use function names only.
              -i     The variable is treated as an integer; arithmetic evalua-
                     tion (see ARITHMETIC EVALUATION above) is performed  when
                     the variable is assigned a value.
              -l     When  the  variable  is  assigned a value, all upper-case
                     characters are converted to lower-case.   The  upper-case
                     attribute is disabled.
              -r     Make names readonly.  These names cannot then be assigned
                     values by subsequent assignment statements or unset.
              -t     Give each name the  trace  attribute.   Traced  functions
                     inherit  the  DEBUG  and  RETURN  traps  from the calling
                     shell.  The trace attribute has no  special  meaning  for
                     variables.

              attempt is made to assign a value to  a  readonly  variable,  an
              attempt  is  made to assign a value to an array variable without
              using the compound assignment syntax (see Arrays above), one  of
              the names is not a valid shell variable name, an attempt is made
              to turn off readonly status for a readonly variable, an  attempt
              is  made  to  turn off array status for an array variable, or an
              attempt is made to display a non-existent function with -f.

       dirs [+n] [-n] [-clpv]
              Without options,  displays  the  list  of  currently  remembered
              directories.   The  default  display  is  on  a single line with
              directory names separated by spaces.  Directories are  added  to
              the  list  with  the  pushd  command;  the  popd command removes
              entries from the list.
              +n     Displays the nth entry counting from the left of the list
                     shown by dirs when invoked without options, starting with
                     zero.
              -n     Displays the nth entry counting from  the  right  of  the
                     list shown by dirs when invoked without options, starting
                     with zero.
              -c     Clears  the  directory  stack  by  deleting  all  of  the
                     entries.
              -l     Produces  a  longer  listing;  the default listing format
                     uses a tilde to denote the home directory.
              -p     Print the directory stack with one entry per line.
              -v     Print the directory stack with one entry per  line,  pre-
                     fixing each entry with its index in the stack.

              The  return value is 0 unless an invalid option is supplied or n
              indexes beyond the end of the directory stack.

       disown [-ar] [-h] [jobspec ...]
              Without options, each jobspec  is  removed  from  the  table  of
              active  jobs.   If jobspec is not present, and neither -a nor -r
              is supplied, the shell's notion of the current job is used.   If
              the -h option is given, each jobspec is not removed from the ta-
              ble, but is marked so that SIGHUP is not sent to the job if  the
              shell  receives a SIGHUP.  If no jobspec is present, and neither
              the -a nor the -r option is supplied, the current job  is  used.
              If no jobspec is supplied, the -a option means to remove or mark
              all jobs; the -r option without  a  jobspec  argument  restricts
              operation  to running jobs.  The return value is 0 unless a job-
              spec does not specify a valid job.

       echo [-neE] [arg ...]
              Output the args, separated by spaces,  followed  by  a  newline.
              The return status is always 0.  If -n is specified, the trailing
              newline is suppressed.  If the -e option is  given,  interpreta-
              tion  of  the following backslash-escaped characters is enabled.
              The -E option disables the interpretation of these escape  char-
              acters,  even  on systems where they are interpreted by default.
              The xpg_echo shell option may be used to  dynamically  determine
              \0nnn  the  eight-bit  character  whose value is the octal value
                     nnn (zero to three octal digits)
              \xHH   the eight-bit character whose value  is  the  hexadecimal
                     value HH (one or two hex digits)
              \uHHHH the  Unicode (ISO/IEC 10646) character whose value is the
                     hexadecimal value HHHH (one to four hex digits)
              \UHHHHHHHH
                     the Unicode (ISO/IEC 10646) character whose value is  the
                     hexadecimal value HHHHHHHH (one to eight hex digits)

       enable [-a] [-dnps] [-f filename] [name ...]
              Enable  and disable builtin shell commands.  Disabling a builtin
              allows a disk command which has the same name as a shell builtin
              to  be  executed without specifying a full pathname, even though
              the shell normally searches for builtins before  disk  commands.
              If  -n  is  used,  each  name  is disabled; otherwise, names are
              enabled.  For example, to use the test binary found via the PATH
              instead  of  the  shell builtin version, run ``enable -n test''.
              The -f option means to load the new builtin  command  name  from
              shared object filename, on systems that support dynamic loading.
              The -d option will delete a builtin previously loaded  with  -f.
              If no name arguments are given, or if the -p option is supplied,
              a list of shell builtins is printed.  With no other option argu-
              ments,  the  list consists of all enabled shell builtins.  If -n
              is supplied, only disabled builtins are printed.  If -a is  sup-
              plied,  the  list printed includes all builtins, with an indica-
              tion of whether or not each is enabled.  If -s is supplied,  the
              output  is restricted to the POSIX special builtins.  The return
              value is 0 unless a name is not a shell builtin or there  is  an
              error loading a new builtin from a shared object.

       eval [arg ...]
              The  args  are read and concatenated together into a single com-
              mand.  This command is then read and executed by the shell,  and
              its  exit status is returned as the value of eval.  If there are
              no args, or only null arguments, eval returns 0.

       exec [-cl] [-a name] [command [arguments]]
              If command is specified, it replaces the shell.  No new  process
              is  created.  The arguments become the arguments to command.  If
              the -l option is supplied, the shell places a dash at the begin-
              ning  of  the  zeroth  argument passed to command.  This is what
              login(1) does.  The -c option causes command to be executed with
              an  empty environment.  If -a is supplied, the shell passes name
              as the zeroth argument to the executed command.  If command can-
              not  be executed for some reason, a non-interactive shell exits,
              unless the shell option execfail is enabled, in  which  case  it
              returns  failure.   An  interactive shell returns failure if the
              file cannot be executed.  If command is not specified, any redi-
              rections take effect in the current shell, and the return status
              is 0.  If there is a redirection error, the return status is 1.

              word.   export  returns  an  exit  status of 0 unless an invalid
              option is encountered, one of the names is  not  a  valid  shell
              variable name, or -f is supplied with a name that is not a func-
              tion.

       fc [-e ename] [-lnr] [first] [last]
       fc -s [pat=rep] [cmd]
              Fix Command.  In the first form, a range of commands from  first
              to  last  is selected from the history list.  First and last may
              be specified as a string (to locate the last  command  beginning
              with  that  string)  or  as  a number (an index into the history
              list, where a negative number is used as an offset from the cur-
              rent command number).  If last is not specified it is set to the
              current command for listing (so that ``fc -l  -10''  prints  the
              last 10 commands) and to first otherwise.  If first is not spec-
              ified it is set to the previous command for editing and -16  for
              listing.

              The  -n option suppresses the command numbers when listing.  The
              -r option reverses the order of the commands.  If the -l  option
              is  given,  the  commands are listed on standard output.  Other-
              wise, the editor given by ename is invoked on a file  containing
              those  commands.  If ename is not given, the value of the FCEDIT
              variable is used, and the value of EDITOR if FCEDIT is not  set.
              If  neither variable is set, is used.  When editing is complete,
              the edited commands are echoed and executed.

              In the second form, command is re-executed after  each  instance
              of  pat  is replaced by rep.  A useful alias to use with this is
              ``r="fc -s"'', so that typing ``r cc''  runs  the  last  command
              beginning with ``cc'' and typing ``r'' re-executes the last com-
              mand.

              If the first form is used, the  return  value  is  0  unless  an
              invalid  option  is encountered or first or last specify history
              lines out of range.  If the -e option is  supplied,  the  return
              value is the value of the last command executed or failure if an
              error occurs with the temporary file of commands.  If the second
              form  is  used, the return status is that of the command re-exe-
              cuted, unless cmd does not specify  a  valid  history  line,  in
              which case fc returns failure.

       fg [jobspec]
              Resume  jobspec  in the foreground, and make it the current job.
              If jobspec is not present, the shell's notion of the current job
              is  used.   The  return value is that of the command placed into
              the foreground, or failure if run when job control  is  disabled
              or, when run with job control enabled, if jobspec does not spec-
              ify a valid job or jobspec specifies  a  job  that  was  started
              without job control.

       getopts optstring name [args]
              ters is to be used.

              When  the  end  of  options is encountered, getopts exits with a
              return value greater than zero.  OPTIND is set to the  index  of
              the first non-option argument, and name is set to ?.

              getopts  normally  parses the positional parameters, but if more
              arguments are given in args, getopts parses those instead.

              getopts can report errors in two ways.  If the  first  character
              of  optstring  is  a  colon, silent error reporting is used.  In
              normal operation diagnostic messages are  printed  when  invalid
              options  or  missing  option  arguments are encountered.  If the
              variable OPTERR is set to 0, no  error  messages  will  be  dis-
              played, even if the first character of optstring is not a colon.

              If an invalid option is seen, getopts places ? into name and, if
              not silent, prints an  error  message  and  unsets  OPTARG.   If
              getopts  is  silent,  the  option  character  found is placed in
              OPTARG and no diagnostic message is printed.

              If a required argument is not found, and getopts is not  silent,
              a  question  mark  (?) is placed in name, OPTARG is unset, and a
              diagnostic message is printed.  If getopts  is  silent,  then  a
              colon  (:)  is  placed  in  name and OPTARG is set to the option
              character found.

              getopts returns true if an option, specified or unspecified,  is
              found.  It returns false if the end of options is encountered or
              an error occurs.

       hash [-lr] [-p filename] [-dt] [name]
              Each time hash is invoked, the full pathname of the command name
              is  determined  by searching the directories in $PATH and remem-
              bered.  Any previously-remembered pathname is discarded.  If the
              -p option is supplied, no path search is performed, and filename
              is used as the full file name of the  command.   The  -r  option
              causes  the  shell  to  forget all remembered locations.  The -d
              option causes the shell to forget  the  remembered  location  of
              each  name.   If the -t option is supplied, the full pathname to
              which each name corresponds is printed.  If multiple name  argu-
              ments  are  supplied  with  -t,  the  name is printed before the
              hashed full pathname.  The -l option causes output  to  be  dis-
              played in a format that may be reused as input.  If no arguments
              are given, or if only -l is supplied, information  about  remem-
              bered  commands  is printed.  The return status is true unless a
              name is not found or an invalid option is supplied.

       help [-dms] [pattern]
              Display helpful information about builtin commands.  If  pattern
              is  specified, help gives detailed help on all commands matching
              pattern; otherwise help for all the builtins and  shell  control
              With no options, display the command history list with line num-
              bers.  Lines listed with a * have been modified.  An argument of
              n lists only the last n lines.  If the shell variable  HISTTIME-
              FORMAT  is  set  and not null, it is used as a format string for
              strftime(3) to display the time stamp associated with each  dis-
              played  history  entry.  No intervening blank is printed between
              the formatted time stamp and the history line.  If  filename  is
              supplied,  it  is  used as the name of the history file; if not,
              the value of HISTFILE is used.  Options, if supplied,  have  the
              following meanings:
              -c     Clear the history list by deleting all the entries.
              -d offset
                     Delete the history entry at position offset.
              -a     Append  the  ``new'' history lines (history lines entered
                     since the beginning of the current bash session)  to  the
                     history file.
              -n     Read  the history lines not already read from the history
                     file into the current  history  list.   These  are  lines
                     appended  to  the history file since the beginning of the
                     current bash session.
              -r     Read the contents of the history file and use them as the
                     current history.
              -w     Write  the current history to the history file, overwrit-
                     ing the history file's contents.
              -p     Perform history substitution on the  following  args  and
                     display  the  result  on  the  standard output.  Does not
                     store the results in the history list.  Each arg must  be
                     quoted to disable normal history expansion.
              -s     Store  the  args  in  the history list as a single entry.
                     The last command in the history list  is  removed  before
                     the args are added.

              If  the  HISTTIMEFORMAT variable is set, the time stamp informa-
              tion associated with each history entry is written to  the  his-
              tory  file, marked with the history comment character.  When the
              history file is read, lines beginning with the  history  comment
              character  followed  immediately  by  a digit are interpreted as
              timestamps for the previous history line.  The return value is 0
              unless  an  invalid option is encountered, an error occurs while
              reading or writing the history file, an invalid offset  is  sup-
              plied as an argument to -d, or the history expansion supplied as
              an argument to -p fails.

       jobs [-lnprs] [ jobspec ... ]
       jobs -x command [ args ... ]
              The first form lists the active jobs.  The options have the fol-
              lowing meanings:
              -l     List process IDs in addition to the normal information.
              -n     Display  information  only  about  jobs that have changed
                     status since the user was last notified of their status.
              -p     List only the process  ID  of  the  job's  process  group
                     leader.

              named by pid or jobspec.  sigspec is either  a  case-insensitive
              signal  name such as SIGKILL (with or without the SIG prefix) or
              a signal number; signum is a signal number.  If sigspec  is  not
              present,  then  SIGTERM is assumed.  An argument of -l lists the
              signal names.  If any arguments are supplied when -l  is  given,
              the  names  of  the  signals  corresponding to the arguments are
              listed, and the return status is 0.  The exit_status argument to
              -l  is  a  number  specifying either a signal number or the exit
              status of a process terminated by a signal.  kill  returns  true
              if  at  least  one  signal was successfully sent, or false if an
              error occurs or an invalid option is encountered.

       let arg [arg ...]
              Each arg is an arithmetic expression to be evaluated (see ARITH-
              METIC  EVALUATION  above).   If the last arg evaluates to 0, let
              returns 1; 0 is returned otherwise.

       local [option] [name[=value] ...]
              For each argument, a local variable named name is  created,  and
              assigned  value.   The option can be any of the options accepted
              by declare.  When local is used within a function, it causes the
              variable  name  to have a visible scope restricted to that func-
              tion and its children.  With no operands, local writes a list of
              local  variables  to the standard output.  It is an error to use
              local when not within a function.  The return status is 0 unless
              local  is  used outside a function, an invalid name is supplied,
              or name is a readonly variable.

       logout Exit a login shell.

       mapfile [-n count] [-O origin] [-s count] [-t] [-u  fd]  [-C  callback]
       [-c quantum] [array]
       readarray  [-n count] [-O origin] [-s count] [-t] [-u fd] [-C callback]
       [-c quantum] [array]
              Read lines from the standard input into the indexed array  vari-
              able  array, or from file descriptor fd if the -u option is sup-
              plied.  The variable MAPFILE is the default array.  Options,  if
              supplied, have the following meanings:
              -n     Copy  at  most count lines.  If count is 0, all lines are
                     copied.
              -O     Begin assigning to array at index  origin.   The  default
                     index is 0.
              -s     Discard the first count lines read.
              -t     Remove a trailing newline from each line read.
              -u     Read  lines  from file descriptor fd instead of the stan-
                     dard input.
              -C     Evaluate callback each time quantum lines are read.   The
                     -c option specifies quantum.
              -c     Specify  the  number  of  lines read between each call to
                     callback.

              If -C is specified without -c,  the  default  quantum  is  5000.
              removes the top directory from the stack, and performs a  cd  to
              the new top directory.  Arguments, if supplied, have the follow-
              ing meanings:
              -n     Suppresses the normal change of directory  when  removing
                     directories  from  the  stack,  so that only the stack is
                     manipulated.
              +n     Removes the nth entry counting from the left of the  list
                     shown  by  dirs, starting with zero.  For example: ``popd
                     +0'' removes the first directory, ``popd +1'' the second.
              -n     Removes the nth entry counting from the right of the list
                     shown  by  dirs, starting with zero.  For example: ``popd
                     -0'' removes the last directory, ``popd -1'' the next  to
                     last.

              If  the popd command is successful, a dirs is performed as well,
              and the return status is 0.  popd returns false  if  an  invalid
              option is encountered, the directory stack is empty, a non-exis-
              tent directory stack entry is specified, or the directory change
              fails.

       printf [-v var] format [arguments]
              Write  the  formatted arguments to the standard output under the
              control of the format.  The -v option causes the  output  to  be
              assigned  to  the  variable var rather than being printed to the
              standard output.

              The format is a character string which contains three  types  of
              objects:  plain  characters, which are simply copied to standard
              output, character escape  sequences,  which  are  converted  and
              copied  to  the standard output, and format specifications, each
              of which causes printing of the next  successive  argument.   In
              addition to the standard printf(1) format specifications, printf
              interprets the following extensions:
              %b     causes printf to expand backslash escape sequences in the
                     corresponding argument (except that \c terminates output,
                     backslashes in \', \", and \? are not removed, and  octal
                     escapes beginning with \0 may contain up to four digits).
              %q     causes  printf  to output the corresponding argument in a
                     format that can be reused as shell input.
              %(datefmt)T
                     causes printf to output the  date-time  string  resulting
                     from  using  datefmt  as a format string for strftime(3).
                     The corresponding argument is an integer representing the
                     number  of seconds since the epoch.  Two special argument
                     values may be used: -1 represents the current  time,  and
                     -2 represents the time the shell was invoked.

              Arguments  to non-string format specifiers are treated as C con-
              stants, except that a leading plus or minus sign is allowed, and
              if  the leading character is a single or double quote, the value
              is the ASCII value of the following character.

                     directories  to  the  stack,  so  that  only the stack is
                     manipulated.
              +n     Rotates the stack so that  the  nth  directory  (counting
                     from  the  left  of the list shown by dirs, starting with
                     zero) is at the top.
              -n     Rotates the stack so that  the  nth  directory  (counting
                     from  the  right of the list shown by dirs, starting with
                     zero) is at the top.
              dir    Adds dir to the directory stack at the top, making it the
                     new current working directory.

              If the pushd command is successful, a dirs is performed as well.
              If the first form is used, pushd returns 0 unless the cd to  dir
              fails.   With the second form, pushd returns 0 unless the direc-
              tory stack is empty, a non-existent directory stack  element  is
              specified,  or the directory change to the specified new current
              directory fails.

       pwd [-LP]
              Print the absolute pathname of the  current  working  directory.
              The pathname printed contains no symbolic links if the -P option
              is supplied or the -o physical option to the set builtin command
              is  enabled.  If the -L option is used, the pathname printed may
              contain symbolic links.  The return status is 0 unless an  error
              occurs  while  reading  the  name of the current directory or an
              invalid option is supplied.

       read [-ers] [-a aname] [-d delim] [-i text] [-n nchars] [-N nchars] [-p
       prompt] [-t timeout] [-u fd] [name ...]
              One  line  is  read  from  the  standard input, or from the file
              descriptor fd supplied as an argument to the -u option, and  the
              first word is assigned to the first name, the second word to the
              second name, and so on, with leftover words and their  interven-
              ing  separators  assigned  to the last name.  If there are fewer
              words read from the input stream than names, the remaining names
              are  assigned  empty  values.  The characters in IFS are used to
              split the line into words.  The backslash character (\)  may  be
              used  to  remove any special meaning for the next character read
              and for line continuation.  Options, if supplied, have the  fol-
              lowing meanings:
              -a aname
                     The words are assigned to sequential indices of the array
                     variable aname, starting at 0.  aname is unset before any
                     new  values  are  assigned.   Other  name  arguments  are
                     ignored.
              -d delim
                     The first character of delim is  used  to  terminate  the
                     input line, rather than newline.
              -e     If the standard input is coming from a terminal, readline
                     (see READLINE above) is used to obtain the  line.   Read-
                     line  uses  the  current (or default, if line editing was
                     not previously active) editing settings.
                     are read.
              -p prompt
                     Display prompt on standard error, without a trailing new-
                     line, before attempting to read any input.  The prompt is
                     displayed only if input is coming from a terminal.
              -r     Backslash does not act as an escape character.  The back-
                     slash is considered to be part of the line.  In  particu-
                     lar,  a  backslash-newline pair may not be used as a line
                     continuation.
              -s     Silent mode.  If input is coming from a terminal, charac-
                     ters are not echoed.
              -t timeout
                     Cause  read  to time out and return failure if a complete
                     line of input is not read within timeout seconds.   time-
                     out  may  be  a  decimal number with a fractional portion
                     following the decimal point.  This option is only  effec-
                     tive  if  read is reading input from a terminal, pipe, or
                     other special file; it has no effect  when  reading  from
                     regular  files.  If timeout is 0, read returns success if
                     input is available  on  the  specified  file  descriptor,
                     failure  otherwise.   The exit status is greater than 128
                     if the timeout is exceeded.
              -u fd  Read input from file descriptor fd.

              If no names are supplied, the line read is assigned to the vari-
              able  REPLY.   The  return  code  is zero, unless end-of-file is
              encountered, read times out (in which case the  return  code  is
              greater  than 128), or an invalid file descriptor is supplied as
              the argument to -u.

       readonly [-aAf] [-p] [name[=word] ...]
              The given names are marked readonly; the values of  these  names
              may  not  be changed by subsequent assignment.  If the -f option
              is supplied, the functions corresponding to  the  names  are  so
              marked.   The  -a  option  restricts  the  variables  to indexed
              arrays; the -A option restricts  the  variables  to  associative
              arrays.   If both options are supplied, -A takes precedence.  If
              no name arguments are given, or if the -p option is supplied,  a
              list of all readonly names is printed.  The other options may be
              used to restrict the output to a subset of the set  of  readonly
              names.   The -p option causes output to be displayed in a format
              that may be reused as input.  If a variable name is followed  by
              =word,  the  value  of  the variable is set to word.  The return
              status is 0 unless an invalid option is encountered, one of  the
              names is not a valid shell variable name, or -f is supplied with
              a name that is not a function.

       return [n]
              Causes a function to exit with the return value specified by  n.
              If  n  is omitted, the return status is that of the last command
              executed in the function body.  If used outside a function,  but
              during  execution  of  a  script  by the .  (source) command, it
              options are specified, they set or unset shell attributes.   Any
              arguments  remaining after option processing are treated as val-
              ues for the positional parameters and are assigned, in order, to
              $1,  $2,  ...   $n.   Options,  if specified, have the following
              meanings:
              -a      Automatically mark variables  and  functions  which  are
                      modified  or  created  for  export to the environment of
                      subsequent commands.
              -b      Report the status of terminated background jobs  immedi-
                      ately, rather than before the next primary prompt.  This
                      is effective only when job control is enabled.
              -e      Exit immediately if a pipeline (which may consist  of  a
                      single  simple command),  a subshell command enclosed in
                      parentheses, or one of the commands executed as part  of
                      a  command  list  enclosed  by braces (see SHELL GRAMMAR
                      above) exits with a non-zero status.  The shell does not
                      exit  if  the  command that fails is part of the command
                      list immediately following a  while  or  until  keyword,
                      part  of  the  test  following  the  if or elif reserved
                      words, part of any command executed in a && or  ||  list
                      except  the  command  following  the final && or ||, any
                      command in a pipeline but the last, or if the  command's
                      return  value  is being inverted with !.  A trap on ERR,
                      if set, is executed before the shell exits.  This option
                      applies to the shell environment and each subshell envi-
                      ronment separately (see  COMMAND  EXECUTION  ENVIRONMENT
                      above), and may cause subshells to exit before executing
                      all the commands in the subshell.
              -f      Disable pathname expansion.
              -h      Remember the location of commands as they are looked  up
                      for execution.  This is enabled by default.
              -k      All  arguments  in the form of assignment statements are
                      placed in the environment for a command, not just  those
                      that precede the command name.
              -m      Monitor  mode.   Job control is enabled.  This option is
                      on by default for interactive  shells  on  systems  that
                      support  it  (see  JOB  CONTROL above).  Background pro-
                      cesses run in a separate process group and a  line  con-
                      taining  their exit status is printed upon their comple-
                      tion.
              -n      Read commands but do not execute them.  This may be used
                      to  check  a  shell  script  for syntax errors.  This is
                      ignored by interactive shells.
              -o option-name
                      The option-name can be one of the following:
                      allexport
                              Same as -a.
                      braceexpand
                              Same as -B.
                      emacs   Use an emacs-style command line  editing  inter-
                              face.  This is enabled by default when the shell
                              is interactive, unless the shell is started with
                              The  effect  is  as   if   the   shell   command
                              ``IGNOREEOF=10''  had  been  executed (see Shell
                              Variables above).
                      keyword Same as -k.
                      monitor Same as -m.
                      noclobber
                              Same as -C.
                      noexec  Same as -n.
                      noglob  Same as -f.
                      nolog   Currently ignored.
                      notify  Same as -b.
                      nounset Same as -u.
                      onecmd  Same as -t.
                      physical
                              Same as -P.
                      pipefail
                              If set, the return value of a  pipeline  is  the
                              value  of  the  last (rightmost) command to exit
                              with a non-zero status, or zero if all  commands
                              in  the pipeline exit successfully.  This option
                              is disabled by default.
                      posix   Change the behavior of bash  where  the  default
                              operation  differs  from  the  POSIX standard to
                              match the standard (posix mode).
                      privileged
                              Same as -p.
                      verbose Same as -v.
                      vi      Use a vi-style command line  editing  interface.
                              This also affects the editing interface used for
                              read -e.
                      xtrace  Same as -x.
                      If -o is supplied with no option-name, the values of the
                      current  options are printed.  If +o is supplied with no
                      option-name, a series of set commands  to  recreate  the
                      current  option  settings  is  displayed on the standard
                      output.
              -p      Turn on privileged mode.  In this  mode,  the  $ENV  and
                      $BASH_ENV  files  are not processed, shell functions are
                      not inherited from the environment, and  the  SHELLOPTS,
                      BASHOPTS,  CDPATH,  and  GLOBIGNORE  variables,  if they
                      appear in the environment, are ignored.  If the shell is
                      started  with the effective user (group) id not equal to
                      the real user (group) id, and the -p option is not  sup-
                      plied, these actions are taken and the effective user id
                      is set to the real user id.  If the -p  option  is  sup-
                      plied  at  startup,  the effective user id is not reset.
                      Turning this option off causes the  effective  user  and
                      group ids to be set to the real user and group ids.
              -t      Exit after reading and executing one command.
              -u      Treat unset variables and parameters other than the spe-
                      cial parameters "@" and "*" as an error when  performing
                      parameter  expansion.   If  expansion is attempted on an

              -E      If set, any trap on ERR is inherited by shell functions,
                      command substitutions, and commands executed in  a  sub-
                      shell  environment.  The ERR trap is normally not inher-
                      ited in such cases.
              -H      Enable !  style history substitution.  This option is on
                      by default when the shell is interactive.
              -P      If  set,  the  shell does not follow symbolic links when
                      executing commands such as cd that  change  the  current
                      working  directory.   It  uses  the  physical  directory
                      structure instead.  By default, bash follows the logical
                      chain  of  directories  when  performing  commands which
                      change the current directory.
              -T      If set, any traps on DEBUG and RETURN are  inherited  by
                      shell  functions,  command  substitutions,  and commands
                      executed in  a  subshell  environment.   The  DEBUG  and
                      RETURN traps are normally not inherited in such cases.
              --      If  no arguments follow this option, then the positional
                      parameters are unset.  Otherwise, the positional parame-
                      ters  are  set  to  the args, even if some of them begin
                      with a -.
              -       Signal the end of options, cause all remaining  args  to
                      be assigned to the positional parameters.  The -x and -v
                      options are turned off.  If there are no args, the posi-
                      tional parameters remain unchanged.

              The  options are off by default unless otherwise noted.  Using +
              rather than - causes  these  options  to  be  turned  off.   The
              options  can  also be specified as arguments to an invocation of
              the shell.  The current set of options may be found in $-.   The
              return status is always true unless an invalid option is encoun-
              tered.

       shift [n]
              The positional parameters from n+1 ... are renamed  to  $1  ....
              Parameters  represented  by  the  numbers  $# down to $#-n+1 are
              unset.  n must be a non-negative number less than  or  equal  to
              $#.   If  n is 0, no parameters are changed.  If n is not given,
              it is assumed to be 1.  If n is greater than $#, the  positional
              parameters  are  not changed.  The return status is greater than
              zero if n is greater than $# or less than zero; otherwise 0.

       shopt [-pqsu] [-o] [optname ...]
              Toggle the values of variables controlling optional shell behav-
              ior.  With no options, or with the -p option, a list of all set-
              table options is displayed, with an indication of whether or not
              each  is  set.  The -p option causes output to be displayed in a
              form that may be reused as input.  Other options have  the  fol-
              lowing meanings:
              -s     Enable (set) each optname.
              -u     Disable (unset) each optname.
              -q     Suppresses  normal output (quiet mode); the return status
                     indicates whether the optname is set or unset.  If multi-

              valid shell option.

              The list of shopt options is:

              autocd  If set, a command name that is the name of  a  directory
                      is  executed  as  if it were the argument to the cd com-
                      mand.  This option is only used by interactive shells.
              cdable_vars
                      If set, an argument to the cd builtin  command  that  is
                      not  a directory is assumed to be the name of a variable
                      whose value is the directory to change to.
              cdspell If set, minor errors in the spelling of a directory com-
                      ponent  in  a  cd command will be corrected.  The errors
                      checked for are transposed characters, a missing charac-
                      ter,  and  one  character  too many.  If a correction is
                      found, the corrected file name is printed, and the  com-
                      mand  proceeds.  This option is only used by interactive
                      shells.
              checkhash
                      If set, bash checks that a command found in the hash ta-
                      ble  exists  before  trying  to execute it.  If a hashed
                      command no longer exists, a normal path search  is  per-
                      formed.
              checkjobs
                      If set, bash lists the status of any stopped and running
                      jobs before exiting an interactive shell.  If  any  jobs
                      are running, this causes the exit to be deferred until a
                      second exit is attempted without an intervening  command
                      (see  JOB  CONTROL  above).   The shell always postpones
                      exiting if any jobs are stopped.
              checkwinsize
                      If set, bash checks the window size after  each  command
                      and,  if necessary, updates the values of LINES and COL-
                      UMNS.
              cmdhist If set, bash attempts to save all lines of  a  multiple-
                      line  command  in  the  same history entry.  This allows
                      easy re-editing of multi-line commands.
              compat31
                      If set, bash changes its behavior to that of version 3.1
                      with  respect  to quoted arguments to the [[ conditional
                      command's =~ operator.
              compat32
                      If set, bash changes its behavior to that of version 3.2
                      with  respect  to locale-specific string comparison when
                      using the [[ conditional command's <  and  >  operators.
                      Bash  versions prior to bash-4.1 use ASCII collation and
                      strcmp(3); bash-4.1 and later use the  current  locale's
                      collation sequence and strcoll(3).
              compat40
                      If set, bash changes its behavior to that of version 4.0
                      with respect to locale-specific string  comparison  when
                      using  the  [[  conditional  command's < and > operators
                      fer.  If not set, bash attempts  to  preserve  what  the
                      user typed.
              dirspell
                      If  set,  bash attempts spelling correction on directory
                      names during word completion if the directory name  ini-
                      tially supplied does not exist.
              dotglob If  set, bash includes filenames beginning with a `.' in
                      the results of pathname expansion.
              execfail
                      If set, a non-interactive shell will not exit if it can-
                      not  execute  the  file  specified as an argument to the
                      exec builtin command.  An  interactive  shell  does  not
                      exit if exec fails.
              expand_aliases
                      If  set,  aliases  are expanded as described above under
                      ALIASES.  This option is enabled by default for interac-
                      tive shells.
              extdebug
                      If  set,  behavior  intended  for  use  by  debuggers is
                      enabled:
                      1.     The -F option to the declare builtin displays the
                             source file name and line number corresponding to
                             each function name supplied as an argument.
                      2.     If the command run by the DEBUG  trap  returns  a
                             non-zero  value,  the next command is skipped and
                             not executed.
                      3.     If the command run by the DEBUG  trap  returns  a
                             value  of 2, and the shell is executing in a sub-
                             routine (a shell function or a shell script  exe-
                             cuted  by  the  .  or source builtins), a call to
                             return is simulated.
                      4.     BASH_ARGC and BASH_ARGV are updated as  described
                             in their descriptions above.
                      5.     Function  tracing  is enabled:  command substitu-
                             tion, shell functions, and subshells invoked with
                             ( command ) inherit the DEBUG and RETURN traps.
                      6.     Error  tracing is enabled:  command substitution,
                             shell functions, and  subshells  invoked  with  (
                             command ) inherit the ERR trap.
              extglob If set, the extended pattern matching features described
                      above under Pathname Expansion are enabled.
              extquote
                      If set, $'string' and  $"string"  quoting  is  performed
                      within   ${parameter}   expansions  enclosed  in  double
                      quotes.  This option is enabled by default.
              failglob
                      If set, patterns which fail to  match  filenames  during
                      pathname expansion result in an expansion error.
              force_fignore
                      If  set,  the  suffixes  specified  by the FIGNORE shell
                      variable cause words to be ignored when performing  word
                      completion even if the ignored words are the only possi-
                      exits, rather than overwriting the file.
              histreedit
                      If set, and readline is being used, a user is given  the
                      opportunity to re-edit a failed history substitution.
              histverify
                      If  set, and readline is being used, the results of his-
                      tory substitution are  not  immediately  passed  to  the
                      shell  parser.   Instead,  the  resulting line is loaded
                      into the readline editing buffer, allowing further modi-
                      fication.
              hostcomplete
                      If set, and readline is being used, bash will attempt to
                      perform hostname completion when a word containing  a  @
                      is   being  completed  (see  Completing  under  READLINE
                      above).  This is enabled by default.
              huponexit
                      If set, bash will send SIGHUP to all jobs when an inter-
                      active login shell exits.
              interactive_comments
                      If set, allow a word beginning with # to cause that word
                      and all remaining characters on that line to be  ignored
                      in  an  interactive  shell  (see  COMMENTS above).  This
                      option is enabled by default.
              lastpipe
                      If set, and job control is not active,  the  shell  runs
                      the last command of a pipeline not executed in the back-
                      ground in the current shell environment.
              lithist If set, and the cmdhist option  is  enabled,  multi-line
                      commands are saved to the history with embedded newlines
                      rather than using semicolon separators where possible.
              login_shell
                      The shell sets this option if it is started as  a  login
                      shell  (see  INVOCATION  above).   The  value may not be
                      changed.
              mailwarn
                      If set, and a file that bash is checking  for  mail  has
                      been  accessed  since  the last time it was checked, the
                      message ``The mail in mailfile has been read''  is  dis-
                      played.
              no_empty_cmd_completion
                      If  set,  and  readline  is  being  used,  bash will not
                      attempt to search the PATH for possible completions when
                      completion is attempted on an empty line.
              nocaseglob
                      If  set,  bash  matches  filenames in a case-insensitive
                      fashion when performing pathname expansion (see Pathname
                      Expansion above).
              nocasematch
                      If  set,  bash  matches  patterns  in a case-insensitive
                      fashion when performing matching while executing case or
                      [[ conditional commands.
              nullglob
                      restricted mode (see RESTRICTED SHELL below).  The value
                      may not be changed.  This is not reset when the  startup
                      files  are  executed, allowing the startup files to dis-
                      cover whether or not a shell is restricted.
              shift_verbose
                      If set, the shift builtin prints an error  message  when
                      the shift count exceeds the number of positional parame-
                      ters.
              sourcepath
                      If set, the source (.) builtin uses the value of PATH to
                      find  the  directory  containing the file supplied as an
                      argument.  This option is enabled by default.
              xpg_echo
                      If  set,  the  echo  builtin  expands   backslash-escape
                      sequences by default.

       suspend [-f]
              Suspend  the execution of this shell until it receives a SIGCONT
              signal. When the suspended shell is a background process, it can
              be  restarted  by the fg command. For more information, read the
              JOB CONTROL section. The suspend command  can  not  suspend  the
              login  shell. However, when -f option is specified, suspend com-
              mand can suspend even login  shell.   The  return  status  is  0
              unless  the shell is a login shell and -f is not supplied, or if
              job control is not enabled.

       test expr
       [ expr ]
              Return a status of 0 or 1 depending on  the  evaluation  of  the
              conditional  expression expr.  Each operator and operand must be
              a separate argument.  Expressions are composed of the  primaries
              described  above  under  CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS.  test does not
              accept any options, nor does it accept and ignore an argument of
              -- as signifying the end of options.

              Expressions  may  be  combined  using  the  following operators,
              listed  in  decreasing  order  of  precedence.   The  evaluation
              depends  on the number of arguments; see below.  Operator prece-
              dence is used when there are five or more arguments.
              ! expr True if expr is false.
              ( expr )
                     Returns the value of expr.  This may be used to  override
                     the normal precedence of operators.
              expr1 -a expr2
                     True if both expr1 and expr2 are true.
              expr1 -o expr2
                     True if either expr1 or expr2 is true.

              test and [ evaluate conditional expressions using a set of rules
              based on the number of arguments.

              0 arguments
                     If the second argument is one of the  binary  conditional
                     operators listed above under CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS, the
                     result of the expression is the result of the binary test
                     using  the first and third arguments as operands.  The -a
                     and -o operators are  considered  binary  operators  when
                     there  are  three arguments.  If the first argument is !,
                     the value is the negation of the two-argument test  using
                     the second and third arguments.  If the first argument is
                     exactly ( and the third argument is exactly ), the result
                     is  the one-argument test of the second argument.  Other-
                     wise, the expression is false.
              4 arguments
                     If the first argument is !, the result is the negation of
                     the  three-argument  expression composed of the remaining
                     arguments.  Otherwise, the expression is parsed and eval-
                     uated  according  to  precedence  using  the rules listed
                     above.
              5 or more arguments
                     The expression  is  parsed  and  evaluated  according  to
                     precedence using the rules listed above.

              When  used  with  test  or [, the < and > operators sort lexico-
              graphically using ASCII ordering.

       times  Print the accumulated user and system times for  the  shell  and
              for processes run from the shell.  The return status is 0.

       trap [-lp] [[arg] sigspec ...]
              The  command  arg  is  to  be  read  and executed when the shell
              receives signal(s) sigspec.  If arg is absent (and  there  is  a
              single  sigspec)  or  -,  each  specified signal is reset to its
              original disposition (the value it  had  upon  entrance  to  the
              shell).   If arg is the null string the signal specified by each
              sigspec is ignored by the shell and by the commands it  invokes.
              If  arg  is  not present and -p has been supplied, then the trap
              commands associated with each  sigspec  are  displayed.   If  no
              arguments  are  supplied or if only -p is given, trap prints the
              list of commands associated with each  signal.   The  -l  option
              causes  the shell to print a list of signal names and their cor-
              responding numbers.   Each  sigspec  is  either  a  signal  name
              defined  in  <signal.h>,  or  a signal number.  Signal names are
              case insensitive and the SIG prefix is optional.

              If a sigspec is EXIT (0) the command arg  is  executed  on  exit
              from  the shell.  If a sigspec is DEBUG, the command arg is exe-
              cuted before every simple command, for  command,  case  command,
              select  command,  every  arithmetic  for command, and before the
              first command executes in a shell function  (see  SHELL  GRAMMAR
              above).   Refer to the description of the extdebug option to the
              shopt builtin for details of its effect on the DEBUG trap.  If a
              sigspec is RETURN, the command arg is executed each time a shell
              function or a script executed with the . or source builtins fin-
              when  one is created.  The return status is false if any sigspec
              is invalid; otherwise trap returns true.

       type [-aftpP] name [name ...]
              With no options, indicate how each name would be interpreted  if
              used as a command name.  If the -t option is used, type prints a
              string which is one of alias,  keyword,  function,  builtin,  or
              file  if  name  is  an  alias,  shell  reserved  word, function,
              builtin, or disk file, respectively.  If the name is not  found,
              then  nothing  is  printed,  and  an  exit  status  of  false is
              returned.  If the -p option is used,  type  either  returns  the
              name of the disk file that would be executed if name were speci-
              fied as a command name, or nothing if ``type -t name'' would not
              return  file.  The -P option forces a PATH search for each name,
              even if ``type -t name'' would not return file.  If a command is
              hashed,  -p  and  -P print the hashed value, not necessarily the
              file that appears first in PATH.  If the -a option is used, type
              prints  all of the places that contain an executable named name.
              This includes aliases and functions,  if  and  only  if  the  -p
              option  is  not  also used.  The table of hashed commands is not
              consulted when using -a.  The -f option suppresses  shell  func-
              tion  lookup, as with the command builtin.  type returns true if
              all of the arguments are found, false if any are not found.

       ulimit [-HSTabcdefilmnpqrstuvx [limit]]
              Provides control over the resources available to the  shell  and
              to  processes started by it, on systems that allow such control.
              The -H and -S options specify that the hard or soft limit is set
              for  the  given resource.  A hard limit cannot be increased by a
              non-root user once it is set; a soft limit may be  increased  up
              to  the value of the hard limit.  If neither -H nor -S is speci-
              fied, both the soft and hard limits are set.  The value of limit
              can be a number in the unit specified for the resource or one of
              the special values hard, soft, or unlimited, which stand for the
              current  hard  limit,  the  current  soft  limit,  and no limit,
              respectively.  If limit is omitted, the  current  value  of  the
              soft  limit  of the resource is printed, unless the -H option is
              given.  When more than one resource is specified, the limit name
              and unit are printed before the value.  Other options are inter-
              preted as follows:
              -a     All current limits are reported
              -b     The maximum socket buffer size
              -c     The maximum size of core files created
              -d     The maximum size of a process's data segment
              -e     The maximum scheduling priority ("nice")
              -f     The maximum size of files written by the  shell  and  its
                     children
              -i     The maximum number of pending signals
              -l     The maximum size that may be locked into memory
              -m     The  maximum resident set size (many systems do not honor
                     this limit)
              -n     The maximum number of open file descriptors (most systems
              (the -a option is display only).  If no option is given, then -f
              is  assumed.  Values are in 1024-byte increments, except for -t,
              which is in seconds, -p, which is in units of  512-byte  blocks,
              and  -T,  -b, -n, and -u, which are unscaled values.  The return
              status is 0 unless an invalid option or argument is supplied, or
              an  error  occurs  while  setting  a  new  limit.  In POSIX Mode
              512-byte blocks are used for the `-c' and `-f' options.

       umask [-p] [-S] [mode]
              The user file-creation mask is set to mode.  If mode begins with
              a  digit,  it is interpreted as an octal number; otherwise it is
              interpreted as a symbolic mode mask similar to that accepted  by
              chmod(1).   If mode is omitted, the current value of the mask is
              printed.  The -S option causes the mask to be  printed  in  sym-
              bolic  form;  the  default output is an octal number.  If the -p
              option is supplied, and mode is omitted, the output is in a form
              that may be reused as input.  The return status is 0 if the mode
              was successfully changed or if no mode  argument  was  supplied,
              and false otherwise.

       unalias [-a] [name ...]
              Remove  each  name  from  the list of defined aliases.  If -a is
              supplied, all alias definitions are removed.  The  return  value
              is true unless a supplied name is not a defined alias.

       unset [-fv] [name ...]
              For  each  name,  remove the corresponding variable or function.
              If no options are supplied, or the -v option is given, each name
              refers  to  a  shell  variable.   Read-only variables may not be
              unset.  If -f is specified, each name refers to  a  shell  func-
              tion,  and the function definition is removed.  Each unset vari-
              able or function is removed from the environment passed to  sub-
              sequent  commands.   If any of COMP_WORDBREAKS, RANDOM, SECONDS,
              LINENO, HISTCMD, FUNCNAME, GROUPS, or DIRSTACK are  unset,  they
              lose  their  special  properties,  even if they are subsequently
              reset.  The exit status is true unless a name is readonly.

       wait [n ...]
              Wait for each specified process and return its termination  sta-
              tus.   Each  n  may be a process ID or a job specification; if a
              job spec is given, all processes  in  that  job's  pipeline  are
              waited  for.  If n is not given, all currently active child pro-
              cesses are waited for, and the return  status  is  zero.   If  n
              specifies  a  non-existent  process or job, the return status is
              127.  Otherwise, the return status is the  exit  status  of  the
              last process or job waited for.


SEE ALSO

       bash(1), sh(1)

Subscribe to us on YouTube