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       vid_puts, vidattr, vidputs - curses interfaces to terminfo database


       #include <curses.h>
       #include <term.h>

       int setupterm(char *term, int fildes, int *errret);
       int setterm(char *term);
       TERMINAL *set_curterm(TERMINAL *nterm);
       int del_curterm(TERMINAL *oterm);
       int restartterm(char *term, int fildes, int *errret);
       char *tparm(char *str, ...);
       int tputs(const char *str, int affcnt, int (*putc)(int));
       int putp(const char *str);
       int vidputs(chtype attrs, int (*putc)(int));
       int vidattr(chtype attrs);
       int vid_puts(attr_t attrs, short pair, void *opts, int (*putc)(int));
       int vid_attr(attr_t attrs, short pair, void *opts);
       int mvcur(int oldrow, int oldcol, int newrow, int newcol);
       int tigetflag(char *capname);
       int tigetnum(char *capname);
       char *tigetstr(char *capname);
       char *tiparm(const char *str, ...);


       These  low-level  routines must be called by programs that have to deal
       directly with the terminfo database to handle certain terminal capabil-
       ities, such as programming function keys.  For all other functionality,
       curses routines are more suitable and their use is recommended.

       Initially, setupterm should be called.  Note that setupterm is automat-
       ically  called  by initscr and newterm.  This defines the set of termi-
       nal-dependent variables [listed in terminfo(5)].   The  terminfo  vari-
       ables lines and columns are initialized by setupterm as follows:

              If  use_env(FALSE) has been called, values for lines and columns
              specified in terminfo are used.

              Otherwise, if the environment variables LINES and COLUMNS exist,
              their  values  are  used.  If these environment variables do not
              exist and the program is running in a window, the current window
              size  is  used.   Otherwise, if the environment variables do not
              exist, the values for lines and columns specified in the termin-
              fo database are used.

       The header files curses.h and term.h should be included (in this order)
       to get the definitions for these strings, numbers, and flags.   Parame-
       terized  strings  should  be  passed through tparm to instantiate them.
       All terminfo strings [including the output of tparm] should be  printed
       with tputs or putp.  Call the reset_shell_mode to restore the tty modes
       before exiting [see curs_kernel(3X)].  Programs which  use  cursor  ad-
       dressing should output enter_ca_mode upon startup and should output ex-
       amine errret:

              1    means that the terminal is hardcopy,  cannot  be  used  for
                   curses applications.

              0    means that the terminal could not be found, or that it is a
                   generic type, having too little information for curses  ap-
                   plications to run.

              -1   means that the terminfo database could not be found.

       If  errret  is  null, setupterm prints an error message upon finding an
       error and exits.  Thus, the simplest call is:

             setupterm((char *)0, 1, (int *)0);,

       which uses all the defaults and sends the output to stdout.

       The setterm routine is being replaced by setupterm.  The call:

             setupterm(term, 1, (int *)0)

       provides the same functionality as setterm(term).  The setterm  routine
       is  included here for BSD compatibility, and is not recommended for new

       The set_curterm routine sets the variable cur_term to nterm, and  makes
       all of the terminfo boolean, numeric, and string variables use the val-
       ues from nterm.  It returns the old value of cur_term.

       The del_curterm routine frees the space pointed to by oterm  and  makes
       it available for further use.  If oterm is the same as cur_term, refer-
       ences to any of the terminfo boolean,  numeric,  and  string  variables
       thereafter  may  refer  to  invalid  memory locations until another se-
       tupterm has been called.

       The restartterm routine is similar to  setupterm  and  initscr,  except
       that it is called after restoring memory to a previous state (for exam-
       ple, when reloading a game saved as a core  image  dump).   It  assumes
       that  the windows and the input and output options are the same as when
       memory was saved, but the terminal type and baud rate may be different.
       Accordingly, it saves various tty state bits, calls setupterm, and then
       restores the bits.

       The tparm routine instantiates the string str with  parameters  pi.   A
       pointer is returned to the result of str with the parameters applied.

       tiparm  is  a  newer  form of tparm which uses <stdarg.h> rather than a
       fixed-parameter list.  Its numeric parameters are integers (int) rather
       than longs.

       The  tputs  routine  applies  padding information to the string str and
       through putchar.

       The vid_attr and vid_puts routines correspond to vidattr  and  vidputs,
       respectively.   They  use a set of arguments for representing the video
       attributes plus color, i.e., one of type attr_t for the attributes  and
       one of short for the color_pair number.  The vid_attr and vid_puts rou-
       tines are designed to use the attribute constants with the WA_  prefix.
       The  opts argument is reserved for future use.  Currently, applications
       must provide a null pointer for that argument.

       The mvcur routine provides low-level cursor motion.   It  takes  effect
       immediately (rather than at the next refresh).

       The  tigetflag,  tigetnum and tigetstr routines return the value of the
       capability corresponding to the terminfo capname passed to  them,  such
       as xenl.

       The  tigetflag routine returns the value -1 if capname is not a boolean
       capability, or 0 if it is canceled or absent from the terminal descrip-

       The  tigetnum  routine returns the value -2 if capname is not a numeric
       capability, or -1 if it is canceled or absent  from  the  terminal  de-

       The  tigetstr  routine returns the value (char *)-1 if capname is not a
       string capability, or 0 if it is canceled or absent from  the  terminal

       The  capname  for each capability is given in the table column entitled
       capname code in the capabilities section of terminfo(5).

              char *boolnames[], *boolcodes[], *boolfnames[]

              char *numnames[], *numcodes[], *numfnames[]

              char *strnames[], *strcodes[], *strfnames[]

       These null-terminated arrays contain the capnames, the  termcap  codes,
       and the full C names, for each of the terminfo variables.


       Routines  that  return  an integer return ERR upon failure and OK (SVr4
       only specifies "an integer value other than ERR") upon successful  com-
       pletion, unless otherwise noted in the preceding routine descriptions.

       Routines that return pointers always return NULL on error.

       X/Open defines no error conditions.  In this implementation

                   returns an error if its terminal parameter is null.
                   not detect I/O errors: X/Open states that tputs ignores the
                   return value of the output function putc.


       The setupterm routine should be used in place of setterm.   It  may  be
       useful  when you want to test for terminal capabilities without commit-
       ting to the allocation of storage involved in initscr.

       Note that vidattr and vidputs may be macros.


       The function setterm is not described by X/Open and must be  considered
       non-portable.  All other functions are as described by X/Open.

       setupterm  copies  the terminal name to the array ttytype.  This is not
       part of X/Open Curses, but is assumed by some applications.

       In System V Release 4, set_curterm has an int return type  and  returns
       OK or ERR.  We have chosen to implement the X/Open Curses semantics.

       In  System  V  Release  4, the third argument of tputs has the type int

       At least one implementation of X/Open Curses (Solaris) returns a  value
       other  than  OK/ERR from tputs.  That returns the length of the string,
       and does no error-checking.

       X/Open Curses prototypes tparm  with  a  fixed  number  of  parameters,
       rather than a variable argument list.  This implementation uses a vari-
       able argument list, but can be configured to  use  the  fixed-parameter
       list.  Portable applications should provide 9 parameters after the for-
       mat; zeroes are fine for this purpose.

       In response to comments by Thomas E. Dickey, X/Open Curses Issue 7 pro-
       posed the tiparam function in mid-2009.

       X/Open  notes  that after calling mvcur, the curses state may not match
       the actual terminal state, and that an application should touch and re-
       fresh the window before resuming normal curses calls.  Both ncurses and
       System V Release 4 curses implement mvcur using the SCREEN  data  allo-
       cated  in  either  initscr or newterm.  So though it is documented as a
       terminfo function, mvcur is really a curses function which is not  well

       X/Open  states that the old location must be given for mvcur.  This im-
       plementation allows the caller to use -1's for the old  ordinates.   In
       that case, the old location is unknown.

       Extended terminal capability names, e.g., as defined by tic -x, are not
       stored in the arrays described in this section.


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