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rsync


SYNOPSIS

       Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync daemon:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files
       instead of copying.


DESCRIPTION

       Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file  copying  tool.   It
       can  copy  locally,  to/from  another  host  over  any remote shell, or
       to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a  large  number  of  options
       that  control  every  aspect  of  its behavior and permit very flexible
       specification of the set of files to be copied.  It is famous  for  its
       delta-transfer  algorithm,  which  reduces the amount of data sent over
       the network by sending only the differences between  the  source  files
       and  the  existing  files in the destination.  Rsync is widely used for
       backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync  finds  files  that  need to be transferred using a "quick check"
       algorithm (by default) that looks for files that have changed  in  size
       or   in  last-modified  time.   Any  changes  in  the  other  preserved
       attributes (as requested by options) are made on the  destination  file
       directly  when  the quick check indicates that the file's data does not
       need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and  permis-
              sions

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a  CVS  exclude  mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would
              ignore

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs
       port is used whenever the source or destination path contains a  single
       colon  (:)  separator  after a host specification.  Contacting an rsync
       daemon directly happens when the source or destination path contains  a
       double  colon  (::)  separator  after  a host specification, OR when an
       rsync:// URL is specified (see also the  "USING  RSYNC-DAEMON  FEATURES
       VIA  A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this latter
       rule).

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a desti-
       nation, the files are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync refers to the local side as the "client" and the remote  side  as
       the  "server".   Don't confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a daemon
       is always a server, but a server can be either a daemon  or  a  remote-
       shell spawned process.


SETUP

       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once  installed,  you  can use rsync to any machine that you can access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
       daemon-mode  protocol).   For remote transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh
       for its communications, but it may have been configured to use  a  dif-
       ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You  can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment  variable.

       Note  that  rsync  must be installed on both the source and destination
       machines.


USAGE

       You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must  specify  a  source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

              rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of the  files
       already  exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-update proto-
       col is used to update the file by sending only the differences. See the
       tech report for details.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       trailing / on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
       as  opposed  to  "copy  the  directory  by name", but in both cases the
       attributes of the containing directory are transferred to the  contain-
       ing  directory on the destination.  In other words, each of the follow-
       ing commands copies the files in the same way, including their  setting
       of the attributes of /dest/foo:

              rsync -av /src/foo /dest
              rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note  also  that  host  and  module references don't require a trailing
       slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":

              rsync -av host: /dest
              rsync -av host::module /dest

       You  can  also  use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and
       destination don't have a ':' in the name. In this case it behaves  like
       an improved copy command.

       Finally,  you can list all the (listable) modules available from a par-
       ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:

              rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

       See the following section for more details.


ADVANCED USAGE

       The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done  by
       specifying  additional remote-host args in the same style as the first,
       or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all these work:

              rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the  SRC,  like
       these examples:

              rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
              rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This  word-splitting  still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but
       is not as easy to use as the first method.

       MON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using  rsync  in  this  way is the same as using it with a remote shell
       except that:

       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a  single  colon  to
              separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when  you  con-
              nect.

       o      if  you  specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list
              of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the speci-
              fied files on the remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

           rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some  modules  on  the remote daemon may require authentication. If so,
       you will receive a password prompt when you connect. You can avoid  the
       password  prompt  by setting the environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to
       the password you want to use or using the --password-file option.  This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING:  On  some  systems  environment  variables  are visible to all
       users. On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

       You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting  the  envi-
       ronment  variable  RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to your
       web proxy.  Note that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
       connections to port 873.

       You  may  also establish a daemon connection using a program as a proxy
       by setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the  commands
       you  wish  to  run  in place of making a direct socket connection.  The
       string may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname  specified
       in  the  rsync  command  (so  use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your
       string).  For example:

         export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
         rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
         rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's data, but since
       the  daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you may not be able
       to use features such as chroot or change the uid used  by  the  daemon.
       (For  another  way  to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider using ssh to
       tunnel a local port to a remote machine and configure  a  normal  rsync
       daemon on that remote host to only allow connections from "localhost".)

       From the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell  con-
       nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-dae-
       mon transfer, with the only exception being that  you  must  explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option.  (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment  will  not  turn  on
       this functionality.)  For example:

           rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the user@ prefix in front of the  host  is  specifying  the  rsync-user
       value  (for  a  module  that requires user-based authentication).  This
       means that you must give the '-l user' option to  ssh  when  specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the
       --rsh option:

           rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will  be
       used to log-in to the "module".


STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS

       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like
       inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).  For full information on how to start a daemon  that  will  han-
       dling  incoming  socket  connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page --
       that is the config file for  the  daemon,  and  it  contains  the  full
       details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd con-
       figurations).

       If you're using one of the remote-shell transports  for  the  transfer,
       there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.


EXAMPLES

       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To  backup  my  wife's  home directory, which consists of large MS Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

              rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the  other  end  of  the
       connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
       a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the com-
       mand:

       rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.


OPTIONS SUMMARY

       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer
       to the detailed description below for a complete description.

        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages
            --no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
        -c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
        -a, --archive               archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
            --no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
        -r, --recursive             recurse into directories
        -R, --relative              use relative path names
            --no-implied-dirs       don't send implied dirs with --relative
        -b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
            --backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
            --suffix=SUFFIX         backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
        -u, --update                skip files that are newer on the receiver
            --inplace               update destination files in-place
            --append                append data onto shorter files
            --append-verify         --append w/old data in file checksum
        -d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing using
                                    "-r --exclude='/*/*'" (rsync 2.6.x compatible)
            --new-dirs              transfer directories without recursing
                                    (rsync 3.0.x compatible)
        -l, --links                 copy symlinks as symlinks
        -L, --copy-links            transform symlink into referent file/dir
            --copy-unsafe-links     only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
            --safe-links            ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
        -k, --copy-dirlinks         transform symlink to dir into referent dir
        -K, --keep-dirlinks         treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
        -H, --hard-links            preserve hard links
        -p, --perms                 preserve permissions
        -E, --executability         preserve executability
            --chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions
        -A, --acls                  preserve ACLs (implies -p)
        -X, --xattrs                preserve extended attributes
        -o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only)
        -g, --group                 preserve group
            --devices               preserve device files (super-user only)
            --ignore-existing       skip updating files that exist on receiver
            --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
            --del                   an alias for --delete-during
            --delete                delete extraneous files from dest dirs
            --delete-before         receiver deletes before transfer (default)
            --delete-during         receiver deletes during xfer, not before
            --delete-delay          find deletions during, delete after
            --delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not before
            --delete-excluded       also delete excluded files from dest dirs
            --ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors
            --force                 force deletion of dirs even if not empty
            --max-delete=NUM        don't delete more than NUM files
            --max-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
            --min-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
            --partial               keep partially transferred files
            --partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR
            --delay-updates         put all updated files into place at end
        -m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from file-list
            --numeric-ids           don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
            --timeout=SECONDS       set I/O timeout in seconds
            --contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds
        -I, --ignore-times          don't skip files that match size and time
            --size-only             skip files that match in size
            --modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
        -T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
        -y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file
            --compare-dest=DIR      also compare received files relative to DIR
            --copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files
            --link-dest=DIR         hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
        -z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer
            --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
            --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
        -C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
        -f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE
        -F                          same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
                                    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
            --exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
            --exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
            --include=PATTERN       don't exclude files matching PATTERN
            --include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
            --files-from=FILE       read list of source-file names from FILE
        -0, --from0                 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
        -s, --protect-args          no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
            --address=ADDRESS       bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
            --port=PORT             specify double-colon alternate port number
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
            --blocking-io           use blocking I/O for the remote shell
            --stats                 give some file-transfer stats
        -8, --8-bit-output          leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
        -h, --human-readable        output numbers in a human-readable format
            --progress              show progress during transfer
        -P                          same as --partial --progress
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
            --version               print version number
       (-h) --help                  show this help (see below for -h comment)

       Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following  options
       are accepted:

            --daemon                run as an rsync daemon
            --address=ADDRESS       bind to the specified address
            --bwlimit=KBPS          limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
            --config=FILE           specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
            --no-detach             do not detach from the parent
            --port=PORT             listen on alternate port number
            --log-file=FILE         override the "log file" setting
            --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
        -h, --help                  show this help (if used after --daemon)


OPTIONS

       rsync  uses  the  GNU  long  options  package. Many of the command line
       options have two variants, one short and one  long.   These  are  shown
       below, separated by commas. Some options only have a long variant.  The
       '=' for options that take a parameter is optional;  whitespace  can  be
       used instead.

       --help Print  a  short  help  page  describing the options available in
              rsync and exit.  For backward-compatibility with older  versions
              of  rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h option
              without any other args.

       --version
              print the rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
              This option increases the amount of information  you  are  given
              during the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently. A single
              -v will give you information about what files are  being  trans-
              ferred  and a brief summary at the end. Two -v options will give
              you information on what files are  being  skipped  and  slightly
              more  information  at  the  end. More than two -v options should
              only be used if you are debugging rsync.

              Note that the names of the transferred files that are output are
              rsync from cron.

       --no-motd
              This option affects the information that is output by the client
              at the start of a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-
              of-the-day  (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of modules
              that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::"  request
              (due to a limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option
              if you want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

       -I, --ignore-times
              Normally rsync will skip any files that  are  already  the  same
              size  and  have  the  same  modification timestamp.  This option
              turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing all files  to  be
              updated.

       --size-only
              This  modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding files
              that need to be transferred, changing it  from  the  default  of
              transferring files with either a changed size or a changed last-
              modified time to just looking for files  that  have  changed  in
              size.   This  is  useful  when starting to use rsync after using
              another mirroring  system  which  may  not  preserve  timestamps
              exactly.

       --modify-window
              When  comparing  two  timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as
              being equal if they differ by no  more  than  the  modify-window
              value.   This  is  normally  0 (for an exact match), but you may
              find it useful to set this to a larger value in some situations.
              In  particular,  when  transferring to or from an MS Windows FAT
              filesystem (which represents times with a 2-second  resolution),
              --modify-window=1 is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1
              second).

       -c, --checksum
              This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed
              and  are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses
              a "quick check" that (by default) checks if each file's size and
              time of last modification match between the sender and receiver.
              This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for  each
              file  that  has a matching size.  Generating the checksums means
              that both sides will expend a lot of disk I/O  reading  all  the
              data  in  the  files  in  the transfer (and this is prior to any
              reading that will be done to transfer changed  files),  so  this
              can slow things down significantly.

              For  protocol  30  and  beyond  (first  supported in 3.0.0), the
              checksum used is MD5.  For older protocols, the checksum used is
              MD4.

       -a, --archive
              This  is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you
              want recursion and want to preserve almost everything  (with  -H
              being  a  notable  omission).   The  only exception to the above
              equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which case  -r
              is not implied.

              Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multi-
              ply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify  -H.

       --no-OPTION
              You  may  turn  off one or more implied options by prefixing the
              option name with "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with  a
              "no-":  only  options  that  are  implied by other options (e.g.
              --no-D, --no-perms) or have different defaults in  various  cir-
              cumstances  (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io, --no-dirs).
              You may specify either the short or the long option  name  after
              the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

              For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o
              (--owner), instead of converting  -a  into  -rlptgD,  you  could
              specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

              The  order  of  the options is important:  if you specify --no-r
              -a, the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite  of
              -a  --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the --files-from
              option are NOT positional, as it affects the  default  state  of
              several  options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see the
              --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
              This tells rsync to  copy  directories  recursively.   See  also
              --dirs (-d).

              Beginning  with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now
              an incremental scan that uses much less memory than  before  and
              begins the transfer after the scanning of the first few directo-
              ries have been completed.  This incremental  scan  only  affects
              our  recursion  algorithm,  and  does not change a non-recursive
              transfer.  It is also only possible when both ends of the trans-
              fer are at least version 3.0.0.

              Some  options require rsync to know the full file list, so these
              options disable the incremental recursion mode.  These  include:
              --delete-before,    --delete-after,    --prune-empty-dirs,   and
              the last parts of the filenames.  This  is  particularly  useful
              when  you want to send several different directories at the same
              time. For example, if you used this command:

                 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              ... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the  remote
              machine. If instead you used

                 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              then  a  file  named  /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the
              remote machine, preserving its full path.  These extra path ele-
              ments  are  called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo" and the
              "foo/bar" directories in the above example).

              Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, rsync  always  sends  these  implied
              directories as real directories in the file list, even if a path
              element is really a symlink on the sending side.  This  prevents
              some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full path of a
              file that you didn't realize had a symlink in its path.  If  you
              want  to  duplicate a server-side symlink, include both the sym-
              link via its path, and referent directory via its real path.  If
              you're  dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you may
              need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

              It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
              is  sent as implied directories for each path you specify.  With
              a modern rsync on the sending side (beginning with  2.6.7),  you
              can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like this:

                 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              That  would  create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine.  (Note
              that the dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would  not
              be  abbreviated.)   (2) For older rsync versions, you would need
              to use a chdir to limit the  source  path.   For  example,  when
              pushing files:

                 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

              (Note  that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so
              that the "cd" command doesn't remain in effect for  future  com-
              mands.)   If  you're pulling files from an older rsync, use this
              idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

                 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
                     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

              For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from  entry  told
              rsync  to  transfer  the  file  "path/foo/file", the directories
              "path" and "path/foo" are implied when --relative is  used.   If
              "path/foo"  is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system, the
              receiving rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate  it
              as  a  directory,  and  receive the file into the new directory.
              With   --no-implied-dirs,   the    receiving    rsync    updates
              "path/foo/file"  using  the  existing path elements, which means
              that the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another  way
              to   accomplish   this   link   preservation   is   to  use  the
              --keep-dirlinks option  (which  will  also  affect  symlinks  to
              directories in the rest of the transfer).

              When  pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need
              to use this option if the sending side has a symlink in the path
              you  request  and  you wish the implied directories to be trans-
              ferred as normal directories.

       -b, --backup
              With this option, preexisting destination files are  renamed  as
              each  file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where the
              backup file goes and what (if any) suffix  gets  appended  using
              the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

              Note   that   if   you   don't  specify  --backup-dir,  (1)  the
              --omit-dir-times option will be implied, and (2) if --delete  is
              also  in  effect  (without  --delete-excluded), rsync will add a
              "protect" filter-rule for the backup suffix to the  end  of  all
              your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").  This will prevent pre-
              viously backed-up files from being deleted.  Note  that  if  you
              are  supplying  your  own filter rules, you may need to manually
              insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in  the
              list  so  that  it  has  a  high enough priority to be effective
              (e.g., if your rules specify a trailing  inclusion/exclusion  of
              '*', the auto-added rule would never be reached).

       --backup-dir=DIR
              In  combination  with  the  --backup option, this tells rsync to
              store all backups in the specified directory  on  the  receiving
              side.   This can be used for incremental backups.  You can addi-
              tionally specify a backup suffix using the --suffix option (oth-
              erwise  the files backed up in the specified directory will keep
              their original filenames).

       --suffix=SUFFIX
              This option allows you to override  the  default  backup  suffix
              used with the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is a ~ if
              no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty  string.


              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
              affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

       --inplace
              This  option  changes how rsync transfers a file when the file's
              data needs to be updated: instead of the default method of  cre-
              ating a new copy of the file and moving it into place when it is
              complete, rsync instead writes the updated data directly to  the
              destination file.

              This  has several effects: (1) in-use binaries cannot be updated
              (either the OS will prevent this  from  happening,  or  binaries
              that attempt to swap-in their data will misbehave or crash), (2)
              the file's data will be in  an  inconsistent  state  during  the
              transfer, (3) a file's data may be left in an inconsistent state
              after the transfer if the  transfer  is  interrupted  or  if  an
              update  fails,  (4)  a file that does not have write permissions
              can not be updated, and (5) the  efficiency  of  rsync's  delta-
              transfer  algorithm  may be reduced if some data in the destina-
              tion file is overwritten before it can be copied to  a  position
              later  in the file (one exception to this is if you combine this
              option with --backup, since rsync is smart  enough  to  use  the
              backup file as the basis file for the transfer).

              WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are
              being accessed by others, so be careful  when  choosing  to  use
              this for a copy.

              This  option  is  useful for transfer of large files with block-
              based changes or appended data, and also  on  systems  that  are
              disk bound, not network bound.

              The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
              not delete the  file),  but  conflicts  with  --partial-dir  and
              --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also incom-
              patible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

       --append
              This causes rsync to update a file by appending  data  onto  the
              end  of  the  file,  which  presumes  that the data that already
              exists on the receiving side is identical with the start of  the
              file on the sending side.  If a file needs to be transferred and
              its size on the receiver is the same or longer than the size  on
              the  sender,  the file is skipped.  This does not interfere with
              the updating of a file's non-content  attributes  (e.g.  permis-
              sions, ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to be trans-
              ferred, nor does it  affect  the  updating  of  any  non-regular
              either  append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       -d, --dirs
              Tell the sending  side  to  include  any  directories  that  are
              encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory's contents are not
              copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a
              trailing  slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without this
              option or the --recursive option, rsync will skip  all  directo-
              ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
              one).  If you specify both --dirs and  --recursive,  --recursive
              takes precedence.

              The   default   --dirs  behaviour  is  backward-compatible  with
              rsync-2.6.x, that is, using a hack of "-r  --exclude='/*/*'"  to
              list  a  single  directory  without recursing.  To turn on a new
              rsync-3.0.x --dirs behaviour, use --new-dirs helper option.

              The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option  or  the
              --list-only  option  (including an implied --list-only usage) if
              --recursive wasn't specified (so that directories  are  seen  in
              the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
              this off.

       -l, --links
              When symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the  des-
              tination.

       -L, --copy-links
              When  symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to (the
              referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions
              of  rsync,  this  option also had the side-effect of telling the
              receiving side to follow symlinks, such as symlinks to  directo-
              ries.   In a modern rsync such as this one, you'll need to spec-
              ify --keep-dirlinks (-K) to get this extra behavior.   The  only
              exception  is  when sending files to an rsync that is too old to
              understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will still have  the
              side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

       --copy-unsafe-links
              This  tells  rsync  to  copy the referent of symbolic links that
              point outside the  copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks  are  also
              treated  like  ordinary  files,  and  so are any symlinks in the
              source path itself when --relative is used.  This option has  no
              additional effect if --copy-links was also specified.

       --safe-links
              This  tells  rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point out-
              a directory hierarchy (as long as  --force  or  --delete  is  in
              effect).

              See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the receiv-
              ing side.

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
              This option causes the receiving side to treat a  symlink  to  a
              directory  as  though  it  were a real directory, but only if it
              matches a real directory from the sender.  Without this  option,
              the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real
              directory.

              For example, suppose you transfer a directory  "foo"  that  con-
              tains  a  file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to directory "bar"
              on the receiver.  Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver  deletes
              symlink  "foo",  recreates  it  as a directory, and receives the
              file into the new directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
              keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

              One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust
              all the symlinks  in  the  copy!   If  it  is  possible  for  an
              untrusted user to create their own symlink to any directory, the
              user could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink  with
              a  real  directory  and affect the content of whatever directory
              the symlink references.  For backup copies, you are  better  off
              using something like a bind mount instead of a symlink to modify
              your receiving hierarchy.

              See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending
              side.

       -H, --hard-links
              This  tells  rsync to look for hard-linked files in the transfer
              and link together the corresponding files on the receiving side.
              Without  this  option,  hard-linked  files  in  the transfer are
              treated as though they were separate files.

              When you are updating a non-empty destination, this option  only
              ensures  that  files that are hard-linked together on the source
              are hard-linked together on the destination.  It does  NOT  cur-
              rently endeavor to break already existing hard links on the des-
              tination that do not exist between the source files.  Note, how-
              ever,  that  if  one  or  more  extra-linked  files have content
              changes, they will become unlinked when  updated  (assuming  you
              are not using the --inplace option).

              Note  that  rsync  can only detect hard links between files that
              are inside the transfer set.  If rsync updates a file  that  has
              extra  hard-link connections to files outside the transfer, that

       -p, --perms
              This  option  causes  the receiving rsync to set the destination
              permissions to be the same as the source permissions.  (See also
              the  --chmod  option for a way to modify what rsync considers to
              be the source permissions.)

              When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

              o      Existing files (including  updated  files)  retain  their
                     existing  permissions,  though the --executability option
                     might change just the execute permission for the file.

              o      New files get their "normal" permission bits set  to  the
                     source  file's  permissions  masked  with  the  receiving
                     directory's default  permissions  (either  the  receiving
                     process's  umask,  or  the  permissions specified via the
                     destination directory's default ACL), and  their  special
                     permission  bits  disabled except in the case where a new
                     directory inherits a setgid bit from  its  parent  direc-
                     tory.

              Thus,  when  --perms  and  --executability  are  both  disabled,
              rsync's behavior is the same as that of other  file-copy  utili-
              ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

              In  summary:  to  give  destination files (both old and new) the
              source permissions, use --perms.  To give new files the destina-
              tion-default   permissions   (while   leaving   existing   files
              unchanged), make sure that the --perms option  is  off  and  use
              --chmod=ugo=rwX  (which  ensures  that  all  non-masked bits get
              enabled).  If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier  to
              type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
              line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the  -Z  option,
              and  includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination
              dir):

                 rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

              You could then use this new option in a  command  such  as  this
              one:

                 rsync -avZ src/ dest/

              (Caveat:  make  sure  that -a does not follow -Z, or it will re-
              enable the two "--no-*" options mentioned above.)

              The preservation of the destination's setgid bit  on  newly-cre-
              ated  directories  when --perms is off was added in rsync 2.6.7.
              is turned on in its permissions.  When an  existing  destination
              file's  executability  differs  from  that  of the corresponding
              source file, rsync modifies the destination  file's  permissions
              as follows:

              o      To  make  a  file non-executable, rsync turns off all its
                     'x' permissions.

              o      To make a file executable, rsync turns on each  'x'  per-
                     mission  that has a corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

              If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       -A, --acls
              This option causes rsync to update the destination  ACLs  to  be
              the same as the source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

              The  source  and  destination  systems  must have compatible ACL
              entries for this option to work properly.  See the  --fake-super
              option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compat-
              ible.

       -X, --xattrs
              This  option  causes  rsync  to  update  the   remote   extended
              attributes to be the same as the local ones.

              For  systems  that support extended-attribute namespaces, a copy
              being done by a super-user copies  all  namespaces  except  sys-
              tem.*.   A  normal user only copies the user.* namespace.  To be
              able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal user,
              see the --fake-super option.

       --chmod
              This  option  tells  rsync  to apply one or more comma-separated
              "chmod" strings to the permission of the files in the  transfer.
              The  resulting value is treated as though it was the permissions
              that the sending side supplied for the file,  which  means  that
              this  option  can  seem  to  have no effect on existing files if
              --perms is not enabled.

              In addition  to  the  normal  parsing  rules  specified  in  the
              chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply
              to a directory by prefixing it with a 'D', or  specify  an  item
              that  should  only  apply  to a file by prefixing it with a 'F'.
              For example:

              --chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X
              ing rsync is being run as the super-user (see also  the  --super
              and  --fake-super  options).   Without this option, the owner of
              new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the
              receiving side.

              The  preservation  of ownership will associate matching names by
              default, but may fall back to using the ID number in  some  cir-
              cumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full discus-
              sion).

       -g, --group
              This option causes rsync to set the  group  of  the  destination
              file  to  be the same as the source file.  If the receiving pro-
              gram is not running as the  super-user  (or  if  --no-super  was
              specified),  only groups that the invoking user on the receiving
              side is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
              group  is  set  to the default group of the invoking user on the
              receiving side.

              The preservation of group information  will  associate  matching
              names  by  default,  but may fall back to using the ID number in
              some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full
              discussion).

       --devices
              This  option causes rsync to transfer character and block device
              files to the remote system  to  recreate  these  devices.   This
              option  has  no  effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the
              super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

       --specials
              This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
              sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
              This  tells  rsync to transfer modification times along with the
              files and update them on the remote system.  Note that  if  this
              option  is  not  used, the optimization that excludes files that
              have not been modified cannot be effective; in  other  words,  a
              missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
              used -I, causing all files to be updated (though rsync's  delta-
              transfer  algorithm will make the update fairly efficient if the
              files haven't actually changed, you're  much  better  off  using
              -t).

              option.   This  is useful for systems that allow such activities
              without being the super-user, and also  for  ensuring  that  you
              will  get  errors  if  the receiving side isn't being run as the
              super-user.  To turn off super-user activities,  the  super-user
              can use --no-super.

       --fake-super
              When  this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user activi-
              ties by saving/restoring the privileged attributes  via  special
              extended  attributes that are attached to each file (as needed).
              This includes the file's owner and  group  (if  it  is  not  the
              default),  the  file's  device  info (device & special files are
              created as empty text files), and any permission  bits  that  we
              won't allow to be set on the real file (e.g.  the real file gets
              u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the  owner's  access
              (since  the real super-user can always access/change a file, the
              files we create can always be accessed/changed by  the  creating
              user).   This option also handles ACLs (if --acls was specified)
              and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

              This is a good way to backup data without  using  a  super-user,
              and to store ACLs from incompatible systems.

              The  --fake-super  option only affects the side where the option
              is used.  To affect the remote side of  a  remote-shell  connec-
              tion, specify an rsync path:

                rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --fake-super" /src/ host:/dest/

              Since  there  is  only  one  "side" in a local copy, this option
              affects both the sending and receiving of files.  You'll need to
              specify a copy using "localhost" if you need to avoid this, pos-
              sibly using the "lsh" shell script (from the support  directory)
              as a substitute for an actual remote shell (see --rsh).

              This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

              See  also  the  "fake super" setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf
              file.

       -S, --sparse
              Try to handle sparse files efficiently  so  they  take  up  less
              space on the destination.  Conflicts with --inplace because it's
              not possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.

              NOTE: Don't use this option when the destination  is  a  Solaris
              "tmpfs"  filesystem.  It  doesn't seem to handle seeks over null
              regions correctly and ends up corrupting the files.

              sent", "bytes received",  "literal  data",  and  "matched  data"
              statistics  are too small, and the "speedup" value is equivalent
              to a run where no file transfers are needed.

       -W, --whole-file
              With this option rsync's delta-transfer algorithm  is  not  used
              and  the  whole file is sent as-is instead.  The transfer may be
              faster if this option is used when  the  bandwidth  between  the
              source  and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
              disk  (especially  when  the  "disk"  is  actually  a  networked
              filesystem).   This is the default when both the source and des-
              tination are specified as local paths.

       -x, --one-file-system
              This tells rsync to avoid crossing a  filesystem  boundary  when
              recursing.   This  does  not limit the user's ability to specify
              items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's  recursion
              through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
              and also the analogous recursion on the  receiving  side  during
              deletion.  Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to
              the same device as being on the same filesystem.

              If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directo-
              ries  from  the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an empty directory
              at each mount-point it encounters (using the attributes  of  the
              mounted  directory  because  those of the underlying mount-point
              directory are inaccessible).

              If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
              --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another device
              is treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories  are
              unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
              This  tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories)
              that do not exist yet on the destination.   If  this  option  is
              combined  with  the  --ignore-existing  option, no files will be
              updated (which can be useful if all you want  to  do  is  delete
              extraneous files).

              This  option  is  a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
              affect the data that goes  into  the  file-lists,  and  thus  it
              doesn't  affect  deletions.   It  just limits the files that the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

       --ignore-existing
              This tells rsync to skip updating files that  already  exist  on
              the  destination  (this does not ignore existing directories, or
              existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

       --remove-source-files
              This tells rsync to remove  from  the  sending  side  the  files
              (meaning  non-directories)  that  are a part of the transfer and
              have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

       --delete
              This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from  the  receiving
              side  (ones  that  aren't on the sending side), but only for the
              directories that are being synchronized.  You  must  have  asked
              rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
              using a wildcard for the  directory's  contents  (e.g.  "dir/*")
              since  the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets
              a request to transfer individual files, not  the  files'  parent
              directory.   Files  that are excluded from the transfer are also
              excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
              option  or  mark  the rules as only matching on the sending side
              (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

              Prior  to  rsync  2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless
              --recursive was enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7,  deletions  will
              also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
              whose contents are being copied.

              This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a  very
              good  idea to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n) to
              see what files are going to be deleted.

              If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
              any  files  at  the  destination will be automatically disabled.
              This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures  (such  as  NFS
              errors)  on the sending side causing a massive deletion of files
              on  the  destination.   You   can   override   this   with   the
              --ignore-errors option.

              The   --delete   option   may   be  combined  with  one  of  the
              --delete-WHEN   options   without   conflict,   as    well    as
              --delete-excluded.    However,  if  none  of  the  --delete-WHEN
              options are specified, rsync  will  choose  the  --delete-during
              algorithm  when  talking  to  rsync  3.0.0  or  newer,  and  the
              --delete-before algorithm when talking to an older  rsync.   See
              also --delete-delay and --delete-after.

       --delete-before
              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              before the transfer starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for
              more details on file-deletion.

              so  it  behaves like a more efficient --delete-before, including
              doing the deletions prior  to  any  per-directory  filter  files
              being  updated.   This  option  was first added in rsync version
              2.6.4.  See --delete (which is  implied)  for  more  details  on
              file-deletion.

       --delete-delay
              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be com-
              puted during  the  transfer  (like  --delete-during),  and  then
              removed  after the transfer completes.  This is useful when com-
              bined with --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more efficient
              than  using  --delete-after  (but  can behave differently, since
              --delete-after computes the deletions in a separate  pass  after
              all updates are done).  If the number of removed files overflows
              an internal buffer, a temporary file  will  be  created  on  the
              receiving  side  to hold the names (it is removed while open, so
              you shouldn't see it during the transfer).  If the  creation  of
              the  temporary  file fails, rsync will try to fall back to using
              --delete-after (which it cannot do if --recursive  is  doing  an
              incremental  scan).   See  --delete  (which is implied) for more
              details on file-deletion.

       --delete-after
              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving  side  be  done
              after  the  transfer  has  completed.  This is useful if you are
              sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the  transfer
              and  you  want  their  exclusions  to take effect for the delete
              phase of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use  the
              old,  non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to
              scan all the files in the transfer  into  memory  at  once  (see
              --recursive).   See --delete (which is implied) for more details
              on file-deletion.

       --delete-excluded
              In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are
              not  on  the  sending  side, this tells rsync to also delete any
              files on the receiving side that are excluded  (see  --exclude).
              See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual exclu-
              sions behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to  protect
              files  from  --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied)
              for more details on file-deletion.

       --ignore-errors
              Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there  are
              I/O errors.

       --force
              Also new for version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to be
              warned about any extraneous files  in  the  destination  without
              removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as "unlim-
              ited", so if you don't know what version the client is, you  can
              use  the  less  obvious --max-delete=-1 as a backward-compatible
              way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though  older  ver-
              sions didn't warn when the limit was exceeded).

       --max-size=SIZE
              This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger
              than the specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be suffixed  with  a
              string  to  indicate  a size multiplier, and may be a fractional
              value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
              affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              The  suffixes  are  as  follows:  "K"  (or  "KiB") is a kibibyte
              (1024), "M" (or "MiB") is a mebibyte (1024*1024),  and  "G"  (or
              "GiB")  is  a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).  If you want the multi-
              plier to be 1000 instead of  1024,  use  "KB",  "MB",  or  "GB".
              (Note: lower-case is also accepted for all values.)  Finally, if
              the suffix ends in either "+1" or "-1", the value will be offset
              by one byte in the indicated direction.

              Examples:    --max-size=1.5mb-1    is    1499999    bytes,   and
              --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

       --min-size=SIZE
              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is  smaller
              than  the  specified  SIZE,  which  can help in not transferring
              small, junk files.  See the --max-size option for a  description
              of SIZE and other information.

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
              This  forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer algo-
              rithm to a fixed value.  It is normally selected  based  on  the
              size  of  each file being updated.  See the technical report for
              details.

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
              This option allows you to choose  an  alternative  remote  shell
              program  to  use  for communication between the local and remote
              copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to  use  ssh  by
              default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

              quoted  string  gives  you  a single-quote; likewise for double-
              quotes (though you need to pay attention to  which  quotes  your
              shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some exam-
              ples:

                  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
                  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

              (Note that ssh users  can  alternately  customize  site-specific
              connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

              You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
              environment variable, which accepts the same range of values  as
              -e.

              See  also  the  --blocking-io  option  which is affected by this
              option.

       --rsync-path=PROGRAM
              Use this to specify what program is to  be  run  on  the  remote
              machine  to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in the
              default           remote-shell's           path            (e.g.
              --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note  that  PROGRAM is run
              with the help of a shell, so it can be any program,  script,  or
              command  sequence you'd care to run, so long as it does not cor-
              rupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to  com-
              municate.

              One  tricky  example  is to set a different default directory on
              the remote machine for use  with  the  --relative  option.   For
              instance:

                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       -C, --cvs-exclude
              This  is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files
              that you often don't want to transfer between systems. It uses a
              similar  algorithm  to  CVS  to  determine  if  a file should be
              ignored.

              The exclude list is initialized to exclude the  following  items
              (these  initial  items are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER
              RULES section):

                     RCS  SCCS  CVS  CVS.adm   RCSLOG   cvslog.*   tags   TAGS
                     .make.state  .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak
                     *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so  *.exe
                     *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .bzr/

              line.  This makes them a lower priority than any rules you spec-
              ified explicitly.  If  you  want  to  control  where  these  CVS
              excludes  get  inserted  into your filter rules, you should omit
              the -C as a command-line option and use a combination of  --fil-
              ter=:C  and  --filter=-C  (either  on  your  command-line  or by
              putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a  filter  file  with  your
              other rules).  The first option turns on the per-directory scan-
              ning for the .cvsignore file.  The second option does a one-time
              import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
              This  option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude cer-
              tain files from the list of files to  be  transferred.  This  is
              most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

              You  may use as many --filter options on the command line as you
              like to build up the list of files to exclude.   If  the  filter
              contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives
              the rule to rsync as a single argument.   The  text  below  also
              mentions  that  you  can  use an underscore to replace the space
              that separates a rule from its arg.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed  information  on  this
              option.

       -F     The  -F  option  is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to
              your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this
              rule:

                 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

              This  tells  rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files
              that have been sprinkled through the  hierarchy  and  use  their
              rules  to  filter the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated,
              it is a shorthand for this rule:

                 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

              This filters out the .rsync-filter  files  themselves  from  the
              transfer.

              See  the  FILTER  RULES  section for detailed information on how
              these options work.

       --exclude=PATTERN
              This option is a simplified form of  the  --filter  option  that
              defaults  to  an  exclude rule and does not allow the full rule-

       --include=PATTERN
              This  option  is  a  simplified form of the --filter option that
              defaults to an include rule and does not allow  the  full  rule-
              parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See  the  FILTER  RULES section for detailed information on this
              option.

       --include-from=FILE
              This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies
              a  FILE  that  contains  include patterns (one per line).  Blank
              lines in the file  and  lines  starting  with  ';'  or  '#'  are
              ignored.   If  FILE  is  -,  the list will be read from standard
              input.

       --files-from=FILE
              Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of  files
              to  transfer  (as read from the specified FILE or - for standard
              input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of  rsync  to  make
              transferring just the specified files and directories easier:

              o      The  --relative  (-R)  option is implied, which preserves
                     the path information that is specified for each  item  in
                     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
                     that off).

              o      The --dirs (-d) option  is  implied,  which  will  create
                     directories  specified  in  the  list  on the destination
                     rather than  noisily  skipping  them  (use  --no-dirs  or
                     --no-d if you want to turn that off).

              o      The  --archive  (-a)  option's  behavior  does  not imply
                     --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if  you  want
                     it.

              o      These  side-effects change the default state of rsync, so
                     the position of the --files-from option on  the  command-
                     line has no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g.
                     -a works the same before or after --files-from,  as  does
                     --no-R and all other options).

              The  filenames  that  are read from the FILE are all relative to
              the source dir -- any leading slashes are  removed  and  no  ".."
              references  are  allowed  to go higher than the source dir.  For
              example, take this command:

                 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

              In  addition,  the --files-from file can be read from the remote
              host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front
              of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
              short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the
              remote end of the transfer".  For example:

                 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

              This  would  copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list
              file that was located on the remote "src" host.

       -0, --from0
              This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from  a  file
              are  terminated  by  a  null  ('\0') character, not a NL, CR, or
              CR+LF.     This    affects    --exclude-from,    --include-from,
              --files-from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule.
              It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names  read  from  a
              .cvsignore file are split on whitespace).

              If  the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the
              --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to  another,
              the filenames will be translated from the sending host's charset
              to the receiving host's charset.

       -s, --protect-args
              This option sends all filenames and some options to  the  remote
              rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them.  This
              means that spaces are not split in names, and  any  non-wildcard
              special  characters  are  not  translated  (such  as ~, $, ;, &,
              etc.).  Wildcards are expanded  on  the  remote  host  by  rsync
              (instead of the shell doing it).

              If  you  use  this  option  with  --iconv, the args will also be
              translated from the local  to  the  remote  character-set.   The
              translation  happens  before  wild-cards are expanded.  See also
              the --files-from option.

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
              This option instructs rsync to use DIR as  a  scratch  directory
              when  creating  temporary copies of the files transferred on the
              receiving side.  The default behavior is to create  each  tempo-
              rary  file  in  the same directory as the associated destination
              file.

              This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition
              does  not  have  enough free space to hold a copy of the largest
              file in the transfer.  In  this  case  (i.e.  when  the  scratch
              directory  is  on a different disk partition), rsync will not be
              --delay-updates option, which will ensure that all copied  files
              get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, await-
              ing the end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough  room  to
              duplicate  all  the arriving files on the destination partition,
              another way to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about
              disk  space  is  to use the --partial-dir option with a relative
              path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy
              of a single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync
              will use the partial-dir as a staging area  to  bring  over  the
              copied file, and then rename it into place from there. (Specify-
              ing a --partial-dir with an absolute path  does  not  have  this
              side-effect.)

       -y, --fuzzy
              This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for
              any destination file that is  missing.   The  current  algorithm
              looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a
              file  that  has  an  identical  size  and  modified-time,  or  a
              similarly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file
              to try to speed up the transfer.

              Note that the use of the --delete option might get  rid  of  any
              potential  fuzzy-match  files,  so  either use --delete-after or
              specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

       --compare-dest=DIR
              This option instructs  rsync  to  use  DIR  on  the  destination
              machine  as an additional hierarchy to compare destination files
              against doing transfers (if the files are missing in the  desti-
              nation  directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is identical
              to the sender's file, the file will NOT be  transferred  to  the
              destination  directory.   This  is  useful for creating a sparse
              backup of just files that have changed from an earlier backup.

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest  directories
              may  be  provided,  which will cause rsync to search the list in
              the order specified for an exact match.  If  a  match  is  found
              that  differs  only  in attributes, a local copy is made and the
              attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file  from
              one  of  the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the trans-
              fer.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is  relative  to  the  destination
              directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

       --copy-dest=DIR
              This  option  behaves  like  --compare-dest, but rsync will also
              copy unchanged files found in DIR to the  destination  directory
              using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new
              This option behaves like --copy-dest, but  unchanged  files  are
              hard  linked  from  DIR to the destination directory.  The files
              must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
              possibly  ownership)  in  order  for  the  files  to  be  linked
              together.  An example:

                rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

              If file's aren't linking, double-check their  attributes.   Also
              check  if  some attributes are getting forced outside of rsync's
              control, such a mount option that  squishes  root  to  a  single
              user,  or  mounts a removable drive with generic ownership (such
              as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
              be  provided,  which  will cause rsync to search the list in the
              order specified for an exact match.  If a match  is  found  that
              differs  only  in  attributes,  a  local  copy  is  made and the
              attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file  from
              one  of  the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the trans-
              fer.

              This option works best when copying into  an  empty  destination
              hierarchy,  as  rsync treats existing files as definitive (so it
              never looks in  the  link-dest  dirs  when  a  destination  file
              already  exists),  and  as  malleable  (so  it  might change the
              attributes of a destination file, which affects  all  the  hard-
              linked versions).

              Note  that if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync
              will not link any files together because it only links identical
              files  together as a substitute for transferring the file, never
              as an additional check after the file is updated.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is  relative  to  the  destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

              Note  that  rsync  versions  prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could
              prevent --link-dest from working properly for  a  non-super-user
              when  -o  was specified (or implied by -a).  You can work-around
              this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync.

       -z, --compress
              With  this  option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent
              to the destination machine, which reduces  the  amount  of  data
              being transmitted -- something that is useful over a slow connec-
              tion.

              Note that this  option  typically  achieves  better  compression
              ratios  than can be achieved by using a compressing remote shell

       --skip-compress=LIST
              Override  the list of file suffixes that will not be compressed.
              The LIST should be one or more file suffixes (without  the  dot)
              separated by slashes (/).

              You  may specify an empty string to indicate that no file should
              be skipped.

              Simple character-class matching is supported: each must  consist
              of a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
              classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported).

              The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have  no  spe-
              cial meaning.

              Here's  an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of
              the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):

                  --skip-compress=gz/jpg/mp[34]/7z/bz2

              The default list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this
              (several of these are newly added for 3.0.0):

                  gz/zip/z/rpm/deb/iso/bz2/t[gb]z/7z/mp[34]/mov/avi/ogg/jpg/jpeg

              This  list  will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in all
              but one situation: a copy from a  daemon  rsync  will  add  your
              skipped  suffixes  to its list of non-compressing files (and its
              list may be configured to a different default).

       --numeric-ids
              With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user  IDs
              rather  than using user and group names and mapping them at both
              ends.

              By default rsync will use the username and groupname  to  deter-
              mine  what  ownership  to  give files. The special uid 0 and the
              special group 0 are never mapped via user/group  names  even  if
              the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

              If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no
              match on the destination system, then the numeric  ID  from  the
              source  system  is  used  instead.  See also the comments on the
              "use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for  information
              on how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the
              names of the users and groups and what you can do about it.

       --timeout=TIMEOUT
              specify a specific IP address (or hostname)  to  bind  to.   See
              also this option in the --daemon mode section.

       --port=PORT
              This  specifies  an alternate TCP port number to use rather than
              the default of 873.  This is only needed if you  are  using  the
              double-colon  (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since
              the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a  part  of  the
              URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

       --sockopts
              This  option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune
              their systems to the utmost degree. You can  set  all  sorts  of
              socket  options  which  may  make transfers faster (or slower!).
              Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call  for  details
              on  some  of  the  options you may be able to set. By default no
              special socket options are set. This only affects direct  socket
              connections  to  a remote rsync daemon.  This option also exists
              in the --daemon mode section.

       --blocking-io
              This tells rsync to use blocking I/O  when  launching  a  remote
              shell  transport.   If  the remote shell is either rsh or remsh,
              rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it  defaults  to
              using  non-blocking  I/O.   (Note  that ssh prefers non-blocking
              I/O.)

       -i, --itemize-changes
              Requests a simple itemized list of the changes  that  are  being
              made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
              the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.   If  you  repeat
              the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the
              receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv  with
              older  versions  of  rsync, but that also turns on the output of
              other verbose messages).

              The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is  11  letters  long.
              The  general  format  is like the string YXcstpoguax, where Y is
              replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by  the
              file-type,  and  the other letters represent attributes that may
              be output if they are being modified.

              The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

              o      A < means that a file is being transferred to the  remote
                     host (sent).

                     tains a message (e.g. "deleting").

              The  file-types  that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a
              directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S  for  a
              special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

              The  other  letters  in  the string above are the actual letters
              that will be output if the associated attribute for the item  is
              being  updated or a "." for no change.  Three exceptions to this
              are: (1) a newly created item replaces each letter with  a  "+",
              (2)  an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3) an
              unknown attribute replaces each letter with a "?" (this can hap-
              pen when talking to an older rsync).

              The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

              o      A c means either that a  regular  file  has  a  different
                     checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device,
                     or special file has a changed value.  Note  that  if  you
                     are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change
                     flag will be present only for checksum-differing  regular
                     files.

              o      A  s  means  the  size of a regular file is different and
                     will be updated by the file transfer.

              o      A t means the modification time is different and is being
                     updated  to  the  sender's  value (requires --times).  An
                     alternate value of T means  that  the  modification  time
                     will  be  set  to the transfer time, which happens when a
                     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a
                     symlink  is  changed and the receiver can't set its time.
                     (Note: when using an rsync 3.0.0 client,  you  might  see
                     the  s  flag combined with t instead of the proper T flag
                     for this time-setting failure.)

              o      A p means the permissions are  different  and  are  being
                     updated to the sender's value (requires --perms).

              o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated to
                     the sender's value (requires --owner and super-user priv-
                     ileges).

              o      A  g means the group is different and is being updated to
                     the sender's value (requires --group and the authority to
                     set the group).

              o      The u slot is reserved for future use.

              o      The a means that the ACL information changed.
              to  the user on a per-update basis.  The format is a text string
              containing embedded single-character escape  sequences  prefixed
              with  a  percent  (%) character.   A default format of "%n%L" is
              assumed if -v is specified (which reports the name of  the  file
              and,  if  the item is a link, where it points).  For a full list
              of the possible escape characters, see the "log format"  setting
              in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              Specifying  the --out-format option will mention each file, dir,
              etc. that gets updated in a significant way (a transferred file,
              a  recreated  symlink/device, or a touched directory).  In addi-
              tion, if the itemize-changes escape  (%i)  is  included  in  the
              string (e.g. if the --itemize-changes option was used), the log-
              ging of names increases to mention any item that is  changed  in
              any  way (as long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).  See
              the --itemize-changes option for a description of the output  of
              "%i".

              Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's trans-
              fer unless one of the transfer-statistic escapes  is  requested,
              in  which  case  the  logging  is  done at the end of the file's
              transfer.  When this late logging is in effect and --progress is
              also  specified,  rsync  will  also  output the name of the file
              being transferred prior to its progress  information  (followed,
              of course, by the out-format output).

       --log-file=FILE
              This  option  causes  rsync  to  log what it is doing to a file.
              This is similar to the logging that a daemon does,  but  can  be
              requested  for  the client side and/or the server side of a non-
              daemon transfer.  If specified as a client option, transfer log-
              ging  will  be  enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See
              the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

              Here's a example command that requests the remote  side  to  log
              what is happening:

                rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --log-file=/tmp/rlog" src/ dest/

              This  is  very  useful  if you need to debug why a connection is
              closing unexpectedly.

       --log-file-format=FORMAT
              This allows you to specify exactly what  per-update  logging  is
              put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must
              also be specified for this option to have any effect).   If  you
              specify  an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in
              the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see
              the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.
                     etc.

              o      Number of files transferred is the count of normal  files
                     that  were  updated via rsync's delta-transfer algorithm,
                     which does not include created dirs, symlinks, etc.

              o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the
                     transfer.   This  does not count any size for directories
                     or special files, but does include the size of  symlinks.

              o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files
                     sizes for just the transferred files.

              o      Literal data is how much unmatched  file-update  data  we
                     had  to  send  to  the  receiver  for  it to recreate the
                     updated files.

              o      Matched data is how much data the  receiver  got  locally
                     when recreating the updated files.

              o      File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
                     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
                     in-memory  size for the file list due to some compressing
                     of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

              o      File list generation time is the number of  seconds  that
                     the sender spent creating the file list.  This requires a
                     modern rsync on the sending side for this to be  present.

              o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the
                     sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.

              o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
                     sent from the client side to the server side.

              o      Total  bytes  received  is  the  count of all non-message
                     bytes that rsync received by the  client  side  from  the
                     server  side.   "Non-message"  bytes  means that we don't
                     count the bytes for a verbose  message  that  the  server
                     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
              This  tells  rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in
              the output instead of trying to test  them  to  see  if  they're
              valid  in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.  All
              control characters (but never tabs) are always escaped,  regard-
              less of this option's setting.

              The  escape  idiom  that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal
              backslash (\) and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3  octal  dig-
              By  default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if
              the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances  it  is  more
              desirable  to keep partially transferred files. Using the --par-
              tial option tells rsync to keep the partial  file  which  should
              make  a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

       --partial-dir=DIR
              A better way to keep partial files than the --partial option  is
              to  specify  a  DIR  that  will be used to hold the partial data
              (instead of writing it out to the  destination  file).   On  the
              next  transfer,  rsync will use a file found in this dir as data
              to speed up the resumption of the transfer and  then  delete  it
              after it has served its purpose.

              Note  that  if  --whole-file is specified (or implied), any par-
              tial-dir file that is found for a file  that  is  being  updated
              will  simply  be  removed  (since rsync is sending files without
              using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

              Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir  --
              not  the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a relative path
              (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to  have  rsync  create
              the  partial-directory  in the destination file's directory when
              needed, and then remove  it  again  when  the  partial  file  is
              deleted.

              If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add
              an exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.   This
              will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist
              on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
              of  partial-dir  items  on  the receiving side.  An example: the
              above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of  "-f  '-p
              .rsync-partial/'" at the end of any other filter rules.

              If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add
              your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the  partial-dir  because
              (1)  the  auto-added  rule may be ineffective at the end of your
              other rules, or (2) you may wish  to  override  rsync's  exclude
              choice.   For  instance,  if you want to make rsync clean-up any
              left-over partial-dirs that may  be  lying  around,  you  should
              specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.  -f 'R
              .rsync-partial/'.  (Avoid using --delete-before or --delete-dur-
              ing unless you don't need rsync to use any of the left-over par-
              tial-dir data during the current run.)

              IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not  be  writable  by  other
              users or it is a security risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

              You  can  also  set  the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
              environment variable.  Setting this in the environment does  not
              force  --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where par-
              still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

       --delay-updates
              This option puts the temporary file from each updated file  into
              a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time
              all the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.   This
              attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
              By default the files are placed into a directory named  ".~tmp~"
              in  each  file's  destination directory, but if you've specified
              the --partial-dir option, that directory will be  used  instead.
              See  the  comments in the --partial-dir section for a discussion
              of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the transfer, and
              what  you  can do if you want rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs
              that might  be  lying  around.   Conflicts  with  --inplace  and
              --append.

              This  option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per
              file transferred) and also requires enough free  disk  space  on
              the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
              files.  Note also that you should not use an  absolute  path  to
              --partial-dir  unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files
              in the transfer having the same  name  (since  all  the  updated
              files  will  be put into a single directory if the path is abso-
              lute) and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy  (since
              the  delayed  updates  will  fail  if they can't be renamed into
              place).

              See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support"  subdir
              for  an  update  algorithm  that  is  even  more atomic (it uses
              --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
              This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty direc-
              tories  from  the  file-list,  including nested directories that
              have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
              creation  of  a  bunch  of  useless directories when the sending
              rsync  is  recursively  scanning  a  hierarchy  of  files  using
              include/exclude/filter rules.

              Note  that  the  use  of  transfer rules, such as the --min-size
              option, does not affect what goes into the file list,  and  thus
              does not leave directories empty, even if none of the files in a
              directory match the transfer rule.

              Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also
              affects  what  directories  get deleted when a delete is active.
              However, keep in mind that excluded files  and  directories  can
              prevent existing items from being deleted due to an exclude both
              hiding source files and protecting destination files.   See  the
              perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

              rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

              If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files,  the
              more  time-honored  options  of  "--include='*/'  --exclude='*'"
              would work fine in place of the hide-filter  (if  that  is  more
              natural to you).

       --progress
              This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
              progress of the transfer. This gives a bored user  something  to
              watch.  Implies --verbose if it wasn't already specified.

              While  rsync  is  transferring  a  regular  file,  it  updates a
              progress line that looks like this:

                    782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

              In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes  or
              63% of the sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate
              of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish  in
              4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end.

              These  statistics  can  be  misleading if rsync's delta-transfer
              algorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender's file consists
              of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate
              will probably drop dramatically when the receiver  gets  to  the
              literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to
              finish than the receiver  estimated  as  it  was  finishing  the
              matched part of the file.

              When  the  file  transfer  finishes, rsync replaces the progress
              line with a summary line that looks like this:

                   1238099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfer#5, to-check=169/396)

              In this example, the file was 1238099 bytes long in  total,  the
              average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
              per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete,  it  was
              the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync ses-
              sion, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to
              see  if  they  are  up-to-date  or not) remaining out of the 396
              total files in the file-list.

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.   Its  pur-
              pose  is to make it much easier to specify these two options for
              a long transfer that may be interrupted.

       --list-only
              This option will cause the source files to be listed instead  of
              transferred.   This  option  is  inferred  if  there is a single
              source arg and no destination specified, so its main  uses  are:
              (1)  to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into
              a file-listing command, or (2) to be able to specify  more  than
              one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).  Cau-
              tion: keep in mind  that  a  source  arg  with  a  wild-card  is
              expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to
              try to list such an arg without using this option.  For example:

                  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

              Compatibility  note:   when requesting a remote listing of files
              from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may  encounter
              an  error  if  you  ask  for  a  non-recursive listing.  This is
              because a file listing implies the --dirs  option  w/o  --recur-
              sive,  and  older  rsyncs don't have that option.  To avoid this
              problem, either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't  need
              to  expand  a  directory's  content),  or  turn on recursion and
              exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

       --bwlimit=KBPS
              This option allows you to specify a  maximum  transfer  rate  in
              kilobytes  per  second. This option is most effective when using
              rsync with large files (several megabytes and up).  Due  to  the
              nature  of  rsync  transfers,  blocks  of data are sent, then if
              rsync determines the transfer was too fast, it will wait  before
              sending  the  next data block. The result is an average transfer
              rate equaling the specified limit. A value of zero specifies  no
              limit.

       --write-batch=FILE
              Record  a  file  that  can later be applied to another identical
              destination with --read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section  for
              details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

       --only-write-batch=FILE
              Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the
              destination system when  creating  the  batch.   This  lets  you
              transport  the  changes to the destination system via some other
              means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

              Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to  some
              portable  media:  if this media fills to capacity before the end
              of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the
              read  from  standard  input.   See  the "BATCH MODE" section for
              details.

       --protocol=NUM
              Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful  for
              creating  a  batch file that is compatible with an older version
              of rsync.  For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used  with  the
              --write-batch  option,  but  rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to
              run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
              creating  the  batch file to force the older protocol version to
              be used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the  rsync
              on the reading system).

       --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC
              Rsync  can  convert  filenames between character sets using this
              option.  Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up  the
              default  character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately, you
              can fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and  a
              remote   charset   separated   by   a   comma   in   the   order
              --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g.  --iconv=utf8,iso88591.   This  order
              ensures  that the option will stay the same whether you're push-
              ing  or  pulling  files.   Finally,  you  can   specify   either
              --no-iconv  or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion.
              The default setting of this option  is  site-specific,  and  can
              also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

              For  a  list of what charset names your local iconv library sup-
              ports, you can run "iconv --list".

              If you specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will trans-
              late  the  filenames  you  specify  on the command-line that are
              being sent to  the  remote  host.   See  also  the  --files-from
              option.

              Note  that  rsync  does not do any conversion of names in filter
              files (including include/exclude files).  It is  up  to  you  to
              ensure  that  you're specifying matching rules that can match on
              both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
              include/exclude  rules  if there are filename differences on the
              two sides that need to be accounted for.

              When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon  that  allows
              it,  the daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset" con-
              figuration parameter regardless of the remote charset you  actu-
              ally  pass.   Thus,  you may feel free to specify just the local
              charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6  when  creating  sockets.   This
              specific  checksum  seed,  which is useful for applications that
              want repeatable block and file checksums, or in the  case  where
              the  user  wants  a more random checksum seed.  Setting NUM to 0
              causes rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.


DAEMON OPTIONS

       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

       --daemon
              This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon  you
              start  running  may  be accessed using an rsync client using the
              host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

              If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it  is
              being  run  via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current
              terminal and become a background daemon.  The daemon  will  read
              the  config  file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client
              and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man
              page for more details.

       --address
              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a
              daemon with the --daemon option.  The  --address  option  allows
              you  to  specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.
              This makes virtual hosting  possible  in  conjunction  with  the
              --config  option.   See  also the "address" global option in the
              rsyncd.conf manpage.

       --bwlimit=KBPS
              This option allows you to specify a  maximum  transfer  rate  in
              kilobytes  per second for the data the daemon sends.  The client
              can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but their requested
              value  will  be  rounded down if they try to exceed it.  See the
              client version of this option (above) for some extra details.

       --config=FILE
              This specifies an alternate config file than the default.   This
              is  only  relevant  when  --daemon is specified.  The default is
              /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon  is  running  over  a  remote
              shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that
              case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory  (typi-
              cally $HOME).

       --no-detach
              When  running  as  a  daemon, this option instructs rsync to not

       --log-file=FILE
              This  option  tells  the  rsync daemon to use the given log-file
              name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config file.

       --log-file-format=FORMAT
              This  option  tells  the  rsync  daemon  to use the given FORMAT
              string instead of using the "log format" setting in  the  config
              file.   It  also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is
              empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

       --sockopts
              This overrides the socket options  setting  in  the  rsyncd.conf
              file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
              This  option increases the amount of information the daemon logs
              during its startup phase.  After the client connects,  the  dae-
              mon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the
              client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's con-
              fig section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sock-
              ets that the rsync daemon will use to  listen  for  connections.
              One  of these options may be required in older versions of Linux
              to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an "address
              already  in  use" error when nothing else is using the port, try
              specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

              If rsync was complied  without  support  for  IPv6,  the  --ipv6
              option  will have no effect.  The --version output will tell you
              if this is the case.

       -h, --help
              When specified after --daemon, print a short help page  describ-
              ing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.


FILTER RULES

       The  filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to trans-
       fer (include) and which files to  skip  (exclude).   The  rules  either
       directly  specify  include/exclude  patterns  or  they specify a way to
       acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a  file).

       As  the  list  of  files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks
       each name to be transferred against the list  of  include/exclude  pat-
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol-
       lows (when present) must come after either a single space or an  under-
       score (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

              exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
              include, + specifies an include pattern.
              merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
              dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
              hide,  H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
              show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
              protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files  from  dele-
              tion.
              risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
              clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When  rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are
       comment lines that start with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the
       full  range  of  rule  parsing as described above -- they only allow the
       specification of include/exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the
       list  (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a file).
       If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash,  space)  or  "+  "  (plus,
       space),  then  the  rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include
       option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A
       --filter  option, on the other hand, must always contain either a short
       or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take  one
       rule/pattern  each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on
       the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option,  or
       the --include-from/--exclude-from options.


INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERN RULES

       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+",
       "-", etc. filter rules (as  introduced  in  the  FILTER  RULES  section
       above).   The  include/exclude  rules  each  specify  a pattern that is
       matched against the names of the files that  are  going  to  be  trans-
       ferred.  These patterns can take several forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a particu-
              lar spot in the hierarchy of  files,  otherwise  it  is  matched
              against the end of the pathname.  This is similar to a leading ^
              in regular expressions.  Thus "/foo" would match a name of "foo"
              at  either  the "root of the transfer" (for a global rule) or in
              the merge-file's  directory  (for  a  per-directory  rule).   An
              unqualified  "foo"  would  match a name of "foo" anywhere in the
              tree because the algorithm is applied recursively from  the  top
              down;  it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at being

       o      use '**' to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a   '['   introduces   a  character  class,  such  as  [a-z]  or
              [[:alpha:]].

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wild-
              card  character,  but  it is matched literally when no wildcards
              are present.

       o      if the pattern contains a / (not counting a  trailing  /)  or  a
              "**",  then  it  is matched against the full pathname, including
              any leading directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a / or a
              "**", then it is matched only against the final component of the
              filename.  (Remember that the algorithm is  applied  recursively
              so  "full  filename"  can actually be any portion of a path from
              the starting directory on down.)

       o      a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory  (as  if
              "dir_name/"  had been specified) and everything in the directory
              (as if "dir_name/**" had been  specified).   This  behavior  was
              added in version 2.6.7.

       Note  that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by
       -a), every subcomponent of every path is visited from the top down,  so
       include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each subcomponent's
       full name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo"  and
       "/foo/bar" must not be excluded).  The exclude patterns actually short-
       circuit the directory traversal stage when rsync  finds  the  files  to
       send.  If a pattern excludes a particular parent directory, it can ren-
       der a deeper include pattern ineffectual because rsync did not  descend
       through  that  excluded section of the hierarchy.  This is particularly
       important when using a trailing '*' rule.   For  instance,  this  won't
       work:

              + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
              + /file-is-included
              - *

       This  fails  because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the '*'
       rule, so rsync  never  visits  any  of  the  files  in  the  "some"  or
       "some/path" directories.  One solution is to ask for all directories in
       the hierarchy to be included by using a single rule:  "+  */"  (put  it
       somewhere   before   the   "-   *"   rule),   and   perhaps   use   the
       --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include
       rules  for  all the parent dirs that need to be visited.  For instance,
       this set of rules works fine:


       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "-  /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at two
              levels below a directory named foo in the  transfer-root  direc-
              tory

       o      "-  /foo/**/bar"  would  exclude  any file named bar two or more
              levels below a directory named foo in the  transfer-root  direc-
              tory

       o      The  combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all
              directories and C source files but nothing else  (see  also  the
              --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The  combination  of  "+  foo/",  "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would
              include only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo  directory
              must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

       o      A  /  specifies  that the include/exclude rule should be matched
              against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
              "-/  /etc/passwd"  would  exclude  the  passwd file any time the
              transfer was sending files from the "/etc"  directory,  and  "-/
              subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named
              "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the current  transfer.

       o      A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the
              pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all
              non-directories.

       o      A  C  is  used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
              should be inserted as excludes in place of  the  "-C".   No  arg
              should follow.

       o      An  s  is  used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending
              side.  When a rule affects the sending side, it  prevents  files
              from  being  transferred.   The  default is for a rule to affect
              both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case
              default  rules  become  sender-side only.  See also the hide (H)
              and show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify  send-
              ing-side includes/excludes.

       o      An  r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving
              side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files
              from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
              the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an  alternate  way
              to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance  ('.')  and  per-
       directory  (':').   A  single-instance merge file is read one time, and
       its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "."
       rule.   For  per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every directory
       that it traverses for the named file, merging  its  contents  when  the
       file exists into the current list of inherited rules.  These per-direc-
       tory rule files must be created on the sending side because it  is  the
       sending side that is being scanned for the available files to transfer.
       These rule files may also need to be transferred to the receiving  side
       if you want them to affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIREC-
       TORY RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

              merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
              dir-merge .per-dir-filter
              dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
              :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude  pat-
              terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A  + specifies that the file should consist of only include pat-
              terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in  a  CVS-
              compatible  manner.   This  turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also
              allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no file-
              name is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A  e  will  exclude  the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.
              "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "-  .rules".

       o      An  n  specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirecto-
              ries.

       o      A w specifies  that  the  rules  are  word-split  on  whitespace
              instead  of the normal line-splitting.  This also turns off com-
              ments.  Note: the space that separates the prefix from the  rule
              is  treated  specially,  so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules
              (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled).

       o      You may also specify any of the modifiers for  the  "+"  or  "-"
              rules  (above)  in order to have the rules that are read in from
              the file default to having that  modifier  set.   For  instance,
              "merge,-/  .excl" would treat the contents of .excl as absolute-
              path excludes, while "dir-merge,s .filt" and  ":sC"  would  each
              make  all  their  per-directory  rules apply only on the sending

       Another  way  to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being
       inherited is to anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored  rules  in  a
       per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory, so
       a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's  an  example  filter  file  which  you'd specify via --filter=".
       file":

              merge /home/user/.global-filter
              - *.gz
              dir-merge .rules
              + *.[ch]
              - *.o

       This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter  file  at
       the  start of the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a per-
       directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to  the  start  of  the
       directory  scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
       directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the par-
       ent dirs from that starting point to the  transfer  directory  for  the
       indicated  per-directory  file.   For instance, here is a common filter
       (see -F):

              --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all  direc-
       tories  from the root down through the parent directory of the transfer
       prior to the start of the normal directory scan  of  the  file  in  the
       directories  that  are  sent  as a part of the transfer.  (Note: for an
       rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

              rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in  "/"  and
       "/src"   before  the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for  the  file  in
       "/src/path" and its subdirectories.  The last command avoids  the  par-
       ent-dir  scan  and  only  looks  for  the ".rsync-filter" files in each
       directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns,
       you  should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the .cvsig-

       Both of the above rsync commands are identical.  Each  one  will  merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather
       than at the end.  This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the
       rules  that  follow  the  :C  instead  of being subservient to all your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions,  the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of $CVSIG-
       NORE) you should omit the -C command-line option and instead  insert  a
       "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C".


LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE

       You  can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter
       rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The  "current"
       list  is  either  the  global list of rules (if the rule is encountered
       while parsing the filter options)  or  a  set  of  per-directory  rules
       (which  are  inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use
       this to clear out the parent's rules).


ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS

       As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are  anchored  at
       the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are anchored at the merge-file's  directory).   If  you  think  of  the
       transfer  as  a  subtree  of  names  that are being sent from sender to
       receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to  be  duplicated
       in  the  destination  directory.  This root governs where patterns that
       start with a / match.

       Because the matching is relative to  the  transfer-root,  changing  the
       trailing  slash on a source path or changing your use of the --relative
       option affects the path you need to use in your matching  (in  addition
       to  changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an  absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing "me")
              +/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing "you")
              Target file: /dest/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/bar/baz

       The  easiest  way to see what name you should filter is to just look at
       the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the  name  (use
       the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any files).


PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE

       Without  a  delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the
       sending side, so you can feel free to exclude  the  merge  files  them-
       selves without affecting the transfer.  To make this easy, the 'e' mod-
       ifier adds this exclude for you, as seen in these two  equivalent  com-
       mands:

              rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
              rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However,  if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want
       some files to be excluded from being deleted, you'll need  to  be  sure
       that  the  receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The easiest way
       is to include the per-directory merge files in  the  transfer  and  use
       --delete-after,  because  this ensures that the receiving side gets all
       the same exclude rules as the sending side before it  tries  to  delete
       anything:

              rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
       to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the com-
       mand  line),  or  you'll  need to maintain your own per-directory merge
       files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is  this  (assume
       that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
          --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In  the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the
       transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are  subservient  to  the
       rules  merged  from  the .rules files because they were specified after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote side is  excluding  the  .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically  exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't
       get deleted) and then put rules into the local files  to  control  what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

           rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \

       against other, identical destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data block generation more than once when updating multi-
       ple  destination  trees.  Multicast  transport protocols can be used to
       transfer the batch update files in parallel  to  many  hosts  at  once,
       instead of sending the same data to every host individually.

       To  apply  the  recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync
       with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync updates the destination tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For your convenience, a script file is also  created  when  the  write-
       batch option is used:  it will be named the same as the batch file with
       ".sh" appended.  This script file contains a command-line suitable  for
       updating  a destination tree using the associated batch file. It can be
       executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally  passing  in
       an  alternate  destination  tree pathname which is then used instead of
       the original destination path.  This is  useful  when  the  destination
       tree  path  on the current host differs from the one used to create the
       batch file.

       Examples:

              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ scp foo* remote:
              $ ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/

              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In  these  examples,  rsync  is  used  to   update   /adest/dir/   from
       /source/dir/  and the information to repeat this operation is stored in
       "foo" and "foo.sh".  The host "remote" is then updated with the batched
       data  going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between the
       two examples reveals some of the flexibility you have in how  you  deal
       with batches:

       o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
              local -- you can push or pull data to/from a  remote  host  using
              either  the  remote-shell  syntax  or  rsync  daemon  syntax, as
              desired.

       o      The first example uses the created  "foo.sh"  file  to  get  the
              right  rsync  options when running the read-batch command on the
              remote host.

       o      The second example reads the batch data via  standard  input  so
       file appears to be  up-to-date  already)  or  the  file-update  may  be
       attempted  and  then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded
       with an error.  This means that it should be safe  to  re-run  a  read-
       batch  operation  if the command got interrupted.  If you wish to force
       the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size
       and  date,  use  the  -I  option (when reading the batch).  If an error
       occurs, the destination tree will probably be in  a  partially  updated
       state.  In that case, rsync can be used in its regular (non-batch) mode
       of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as  new  as
       the  one used to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an error
       if the protocol version in the batch file is too  new  for  the  batch-
       reading  rsync  to handle.  See also the --protocol option for a way to
       have the creating rsync generate a batch file that an older  rsync  can
       understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so
       mixing versions older than that with newer versions will not work.)

       When reading a batch file,  rsync  will  force  the  value  of  certain
       options  to  match the data in the batch file if you didn't set them to
       the same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and  should)
       be  changed.   For  instance  --write-batch  changes  to  --read-batch,
       --files-from is dropped, and the  --filter/--include/--exclude  options
       are not needed unless one of the --delete options is specified.

       The   code   that   creates  the  BATCH.sh  file  transforms  any  fil-
       ter/include/exclude options into a single list that is  appended  as  a
       "here"  document  to  the  shell script file.  An advanced user can use
       this to modify the exclude list if a change in  what  gets  deleted  by
       --delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use
       the shell script as an easy way to  run  the  appropriate  --read-batch
       command for the batched data.

       The  original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest
       version uses a new implementation.


SYMBOLIC LINKS

       Three basic behaviors are possible when  rsync  encounters  a  symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By  default,  symbolic  links  are  not  transferred at all.  A message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same tar-
       get on the destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

       If  --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       rsync also distinguishes "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An  exam-
       ple  where  this  might be used is a web site mirror that wishes ensure

       --copy-links
              Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
              other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe  sym-
              links.

       --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn  all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe sym-
              links.

       --links --safe-links
              Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

       --links
              Duplicate all symlinks.


DIAGNOSTICS

       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little cryp-
       tic.  The  one that seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol ver-
       sion mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

       This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote  shell
       facility  producing  unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using
       for its transport. The way to diagnose this  problem  is  to  run  your
       remote shell like this:

              ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then  look  at out.dat. If everything is working correctly then out.dat
       should be a zero length file. If you are getting the above  error  from
       rsync  then  you  will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
       data. Look at the contents and try to work out what  is  producing  it.
       The  most  common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts
       (such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output  statements  for  non-
       interactive logins.

       If  you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specify-
       ing the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity  rsync  will  show  why
       each individual file is included or excluded.


EXIT VALUES


       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection


ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       CVSIGNORE
              The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any  ignore  pat-
              terns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more
              details.

       RSYNC_ICONV
              Specify a default --iconv setting using this  environment  vari-
              able.

       RSYNC_RSH
              The  RSYNC_RSH  environment  variable allows you to override the
              default shell used as the transport  for  rsync.   Command  line
              options  are permitted after the command name, just as in the -e
              option.

       RSYNC_PROXY
              The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
              rsync  client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync dae-
              mon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.



FILES

       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf


SEE ALSO

       rsyncd.conf(5)


BUGS

       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When  transferring  to  FAT  filesystems  rsync  may re-sync unmodified
       files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are  transferred  as  native  numerical
       values

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at http://rsync.samba.org/


VERSION

       This man page is current for version 3.0.6 of rsync.


INTERNAL OPTIONS

       The  options  --server  and  --sender are used internally by rsync, and
       should never be typed by  a  user  under  normal  circumstances.   Some
       awareness  of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as
       when setting up a login that  can  only  run  an  rsync  command.   For
       instance,  the support directory of the rsync distribution has an exam-
       ple script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with  a
       restricted ssh login.


CREDITS

       rsync  is distributed under the GNU public license.  See the file COPY-
       ING for details.

       A WEB site is available at http://rsync.samba.org/.  The site  includes
       an  FAQ-O-Matic  which  may  cover  questions unanswered by this manual
       page.

       The primary ftp site for rsync is ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync.

       We would be delighted to hear  from  you  if  you  like  this  program.
       Please contact the mailing-list at rsync@lists.samba.org.


AUTHOR

       rsync was originally written by Andrew  Tridgell  and  Paul  Mackerras.
       Many  people  have later contributed to it.  It is currently maintained
       by Wayne Davison.

       Mailing  lists  for  support   and   development   are   available   at
       http://lists.samba.org

                                  8 May 2009                          rsync(1)
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