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       screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]


       Screen is a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a physical ter-
       minal between several processes (typically interactive  shells).   Each
       virtual terminal provides the functions of a DEC VT100 terminal and, in
       addition, several control functions from the ISO 6429  (ECMA  48,  ANSI
       X3.64)  and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
       multiple character sets).  There is a  scrollback  history  buffer  for
       each virtual terminal and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows moving
       text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a  shell  in  it
       (or  the  specified  command) and then gets out of your way so that you
       can use the program as you normally would.  Then, at any time, you  can
       create new (full-screen) windows with other programs in them (including
       more shells), kill existing windows, view a list of windows, turn  out-
       put  logging  on and off, copy-and-paste text between windows, view the
       scrollback history, switch between windows in whatever manner you wish,
       etc.  All  windows  run  their  programs completely independent of each
       other. Programs continue to run when their window is currently not vis-
       ible and even when the whole screen session is detached from the user's
       terminal.  When a program terminates, screen (per  default)  kills  the
       window  that  contained  it.  If this window was in the foreground, the
       display switches to the previous  window;  if  none  are  left,  screen

       Everything  you type is sent to the program running in the current win-
       dow.  The only exception to this is the one keystroke that is  used  to
       initiate  a  command  to  the window manager.  By default, each command
       begins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now on), and is  followed
       by one other keystroke.  The command character and all the key bindings
       can be fully customized to be anything you like, though they are always
       two characters in length.

       Screen does not understand the prefix "C-" to mean control.  Please use
       the caret notation ("^A" instead of "C-a") as  arguments  to  e.g.  the
       escape  command  or  the -e option.  Screen will also print out control
       characters in caret notation.

       The standard way to create a new window is to type "C-a c".  This  cre-
       ates  a  new window running a shell and switches to that window immedi-
       ately, regardless of the state of the process running  in  the  current
       window.   Similarly,  you can create a new window with a custom command
       in it by first binding the command to a keystroke  (in  your  .screenrc

       If "/etc/utmp" is writable by screen, an  appropriate  record  will  be
       written  to  this  file for each window, and removed when the window is
       terminated.  This is useful for working with "talk",  "script",  "shut-
       down",  "rsend",  "sccs"  and  other similar programs that use the utmp
       file to determine who you are. As long as screen is active on your ter-
       minal,  the  terminal's  own  record is removed from the utmp file. See
       also "C-a L".


       Before you begin to use screen you'll need to make sure you  have  cor-
       rectly  selected  your  terminal  type, just as you would for any other
       termcap/terminfo program.  (You can do this by using tset for example.)

       If you're impatient and want to get started without doing  a  lot  more
       reading,  you should remember this one command:  "C-a ?".  Typing these
       two characters will display a list of the available screen commands and
       their bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the section "DEFAULT KEY
       BINDINGS". The manual section "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with  the  contents
       of your .screenrc.

       If your terminal is a "true" auto-margin terminal (it doesn't allow the
       last position on the screen to be updated without scrolling the screen)
       consider  using a version of your terminal's termcap that has automatic
       margins turned off. This will ensure an accurate and optimal update  of
       the  screen  in all circumstances. Most terminals nowadays have "magic"
       margins (automatic margins plus usable last column). This is the  VT100
       style  type  and  perfectly  suited for screen.  If all you've got is a
       "true" auto-margin terminal screen will  be  content  to  use  it,  but
       updating  a  character put into the last position on the screen may not
       be possible until the screen scrolls or the character is moved  into  a
       safe position in some other way. This delay can be shortened by using a
       terminal with insert-character capability.


       Screen has the following command-line options:

       -a   include all capabilities (with some minor exceptions) in each win-
            dow's  termcap, even if screen must redraw parts of the display in
            order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt the sizes of all windows to the size of the  current  termi-
            nal.   By  default,  screen  tries to restore its old window sizes
            when attaching to resizable terminals  (those  with  "WS"  in  its
            description, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
            override  the default configuration file from "$HOME/.screenrc" to

       -d -RR  Reattach a session and if necessary detach or  create  it.  Use
               the first session if more than one session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach  a  session.  If  necessary detach and logout remotely

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is run-
               ning,  then  reattach.  If necessary detach and logout remotely
               first.  If it was not running create it and  notify  the  user.
               This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

            Note:  It  is  always a good idea to check the status of your ses-
            sions by means of "screen -list".

       -e xy
            specifies the command character to be x and the character generat-
            ing a literal command character to y (when typed after the command
            character).  The default is "C-a" and `a', which can be  specified
            as  "-e^Aa".  When creating a screen session, this option sets the
            default command character. In a multiuser session all users  added
            will  start off with this command character. But when attaching to
            an already running session, this option changes only  the  command
            character  of  the  attaching  user.  This option is equivalent to
            either the commands "defescape" or "escape" respectively.

       -f, -fn, and -fa
            turns flow-control on, off, or "automatic switching  mode".   This
            can also be defined through the "defflow" .screenrc command.

       -h num
            Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will  cause  the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt the dis-
            play immediately when  flow-control  is  on.   See  the  "defflow"
            .screenrc command for details.  The use of this option is discour-

       -l and -ln
            turns login mode on or off (for  /etc/utmp  updating).   This  can
            also be defined through the "deflogin" .screenrc command.

       -ls [match]
       -list [match]
            does  not  start screen, but prints a list of pid.tty.host strings
            identifying your screen sessions.  Sessions marked `detached'  can
            be  resumed  with "screen -r". Those marked `attached' are running
            and have a controlling terminal. If the session runs in  multiuser
            mode,  it  is  marked  `multi'.  Sessions  marked as `unreachable'
            either live on a different host or  are  `dead'.   An  unreachable

       -d -m   Start screen in "detached" mode. This creates a new session but
               doesn't  attach  to  it.  This  is  useful  for  system startup

       -D -m   This also starts screen in "detached" mode, but doesn't fork  a
               new process. The command exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects  a  more optimal output mode for your terminal rather than
            true VT100 emulation (only affects auto-margin  terminals  without
            `LP').   This can also be set in your .screenrc by specifying `OP'
            in a "termcap" command.

       -p number_or_name|-|=|+
            Preselect a window. This is useful when you want to reattach to  a
            specific  window or you want to send a command via the "-X" option
            to a specific window. As with screen's select command, "-" selects
            the  blank  window.  As a special case for reattach, "=" brings up
            the windowlist on the blank window, while a "+" will create a  new
            window.  The  command will not be executed if the specified window
            could not be found.

       -q   Suppress printing of error messages. In combination with "-ls" the
            exit  value  is  as  follows: 9 indicates a directory without ses-
            sions. 10 indicates a directory with running  but  not  attachable
            sessions.  11 (or more) indicates 1 (or more) usable sessions.  In
            combination with "-r" the exit value is as follows:  10  indicates
            that  there  is  no session to resume. 12 (or more) indicates that
            there are 2 (or more) sessions to resume and  you  should  specify
            which one to choose.  In all other cases "-q" has no effect.

       -Q   Some  commands now can be queried from a remote session using this
            flag, e.g.  'screen  -Q  windows'.  The  commands  will  send  the
            response  to  the  stdout of the querying process. If there was an
            error in the command, then the querying process will exit  with  a
            non-zero status.

            The commands that can be queried now are:

       -r [pid.tty.host]
       -r sessionowner/[pid.tty.host]
            resumes  a detached screen session.  No other options (except com-
            binations with -d/-D) may be specified, though an optional  prefix
            of  [pid.]tty.host  may  be needed to distinguish between multiple
            sets  the  default  shell to the program specified, instead of the
            value in the environment variable  $SHELL  (or  "/bin/sh"  if  not
            defined).   This can also be defined through the "shell" .screenrc

       -S sessionname
            When creating a new session, this option can be used to specify  a
            meaningful  name for the session. This name identifies the session
            for "screen -list" and "screen -r"  actions.  It  substitutes  the
            default [tty.host] suffix.

       -t name
            sets  the  title  (a.k.a.) for the default shell or specified pro-
            gram.  See also the "shelltitle" .screenrc command.

       -T term
            Set the $TERM  enviroment  varible  using  the  spcified  term  as
            opposed to the defualt setting of screen.

       -U   Run  screen in UTF-8 mode. This option tells screen that your ter-
            minal sends and understands UTF-8 encoded characters. It also sets
            the default encoding for new windows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
            does  the  same  as  "screen  -ls", but removes destroyed sessions
            instead of marking them as `dead'.  An unreachable session is con-
            sidered  dead,  when its name matches either the name of the local
            host, or the explicitly given parameter, if any.  See the -r  flag
            for a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach  to  a  not  detached screen session. (Multi display mode).
            Screen refuses to attach from within itself.  But  when  cascading
            multiple screens, loops are not detected; take care.

       -X   Send  the  specified  command to a running screen session. You can
            use the -d or -r option to tell screen to look only  for  attached
            or  detached  screen sessions. Note that this command doesn't work
            if the session is password protected.

       -4   Resolve hostnames only to IPv4 addresses.

       -6   Resolve hostnames only to IPv6 addresses.


       As mentioned, each screen command consists of a "C-a" followed  by  one
       other  character.  For your convenience, all commands that are bound to
       lower-case letters are also bound to their control  character  counter-
       parts (with the exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-a c" as well
       as "C-a C-c" can be used to create a window.  See  section  "CUSTOMIZA-
                                 blank window.

       C-a tab     (focus)       Switch  the  input  focus to the next region.
                                 See also split, remove, only.

       C-a C-a     (other)       Toggle to the  window  displayed  previously.
                                 Note  that  this binding defaults to the com-
                                 mand character typed twice,  unless  overrid-
                                 den.   For  instance,  if  you use the option
                                 "-e]x", this command becomes "]]".

       C-a a       (meta)        Send the command character (C-a)  to  window.
                                 See escape command.

       C-a A       (title)       Allow  the  user to enter a name for the cur-
                                 rent window.

       C-a b
       C-a C-b     (break)       Send a break to window.

       C-a B       (pow_break)   Reopen the terminal line and send a break.

       C-a c
       C-a C-c     (screen)      Create a new window with a shell  and  switch
                                 to that window.

       C-a C       (clear)       Clear the screen.

       C-a d
       C-a C-d     (detach)      Detach screen from this terminal.

       C-a D D     (pow_detach)  Detach and logout.

       C-a f
       C-a C-f     (flow)        Toggle flow on, off or auto.

       C-a F       (fit)         Resize the window to the current region size.

       C-a C-g     (vbell)       Toggles screen's visual bell mode.

       C-a h       (hardcopy)    Write a hardcopy of the current window to the
                                 file "hardcopy.n".

       C-a H       (log)         Begins/ends logging of the current window  to
                                 the file "screenlog.n".

       C-a i
       C-a C-i     (info)        Show info about this window.

       C-a k
       C-a C-k     (kill)        Destroy current window.

       C-a n
       C-a C-n     (next)        Switch to the next window.

       C-a N       (number)      Show the number (and title)  of  the  current

       C-a backspace
       C-a h
       C-a p
       C-a C-p     (prev)        Switch to the previous window (opposite of C-
                                 a n).

       C-a q
       C-a C-q     (xon)         Send a control-q to the current window.

       C-a Q       (only)        Delete all regions but the current one.   See
                                 also split, remove, focus.

       C-a r
       C-a C-r     (wrap)        Toggle the current window's line-wrap setting
                                 (turn the current window's automatic  margins
                                 on and off).

       C-a s
       C-a C-s     (xoff)        Send a control-s to the current window.

       C-a S       (split)       Split  the  current  region horizontally into
                                 two new ones.  See also only, remove, focus.

       C-a t
       C-a C-t     (time)        Show system information.

       C-a v       (version)     Display the version and compilation date.

       C-a C-v     (digraph)     Enter digraph.

       C-a w
       C-a C-w     (windows)     Show a list of window.

       C-a W       (width)       Toggle 80/132 columns.

       C-a x
       C-a C-x     (lockscreen)  Lock this terminal.

       C-a X       (remove)      Kill the current  region.   See  also  split,
                                 only, focus.

       C-a z
       C-a C-z     (suspend)     Suspend  screen.   Your  system  must support
                                 BSD-style job-control.

       C-a Z       (reset)       Reset the virtual terminal to its  "power-on"
       C-a C-]
       C-a ]       (paste .)     Write the contents of the paste buffer to the
                                 stdin queue of the current window.

       C-a {
       C-a }       (history)     Copy and paste a previous (command) line.

       C-a >       (writebuf)    Write paste buffer to a file.

       C-a <       (readbuf)     Reads the screen-exchange file into the paste

       C-a =       (removebuf)   Removes the file used by C-a < and C-a >.

       C-a ,       (license)     Shows  where screen comes from, where it went
                                 to and why you can use it.

       C-a _       (silence)     Start/stop monitoring the current window  for

       C-a |       (split -v)    Split  the current region vertically into two
                                 new ones.

       C-a *       (displays)    Show a listing of all currently attached dis-


       The  "socket  directory"  defaults either to $HOME/.screen or simply to
       /tmp/screens or preferably to  /usr/local/screens  chosen  at  compile-
       time. If screen is installed setuid-root, then the administrator should
       compile screen with an adequate (not NFS mounted) socket directory.  If
       screen  is  not  running setuid-root, the user can specify any mode 700
       directory in the environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When screen is invoked, it executes initialization  commands  from  the
       files  "/etc/screenrc"  and  ".screenrc"  in the user's home directory.
       These are the "programmer's defaults" that can  be  overridden  in  the
       following  ways:  for  the global screenrc file screen searches for the
       environment variable $SYSSCREENRC (this override feature  may  be  dis-
       abled  at compile-time). The user specific screenrc file is searched in
       $SCREENRC, then $HOME/.screenrc.  The  command  line  option  -c  takes
       precedence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands  in  these  files  are  used to set options, bind functions to
       keys, and to automatically establish one or more windows at the  begin-
       ning  of  your  screen session.  Commands are listed one per line, with
       empty lines being ignored.  A command's arguments are separated by tabs
       or  spaces,  and  may  be surrounded by single or double quotes.  A `#'
       turns the rest of the line into a comment, except in quotes.   Unintel-
       ligible  lines are warned about and ignored.  Commands may contain ref-
       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames [crypted-pw]
       addacl usernames

       Enable users to fully access this screen session. Usernames can be  one
       user or a comma separated list of users. This command enables to attach
       to the screen session and performs the equivalent of `aclchg  usernames
       +rwx  "#?"'.   executed.  To add a user with restricted access, use the
       `aclchg' command below.  If an optional second parameter  is  supplied,
       it  should  be  a crypted password for the named user(s). `Addacl' is a
       synonym to `acladd'.  Multi user mode only.

       aclchg usernames permbits list
       chacl usernames permbits list

       Change permissions for a comma separated list of users. Permission bits
       are  represented  as `r', `w' and `x'. Prefixing `+' grants the permis-
       sion, `-' removes it. The third parameter is a comma separated list  of
       commands and/or windows (specified either by number or title). The spe-
       cial list `#' refers to all windows, `?' to all commands. if  usernames
       consists  of a single `*', all known users are affected.  A command can
       be executed when the user has the `x' bit for it.  The  user  can  type
       input to a window when he has its `w' bit set and no other user obtains
       a writelock for this window.  Other bits  are  currently  ignored.   To
       withdraw  the writelock from another user in window 2: `aclchg username
       -w+w 2'.  To allow read-only access to the session: `aclchg username -w
       "#"'.  As soon as a user's name is known to screen he can attach to the
       session and (per default) has full permissions for all command and win-
       dows. Execution permission for the acl commands, `at' and others should
       also be removed or the user may be able  to  regain  write  permission.
       Rights  of  the special username nobody cannot be changed (see the "su"
       command).  `Chacl' is a synonym to `aclchg'.  Multi user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove a user from screen's access control list. If currently attached,
       all the user's displays are detached from the session. He cannot attach
       again.  Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates groups of users that share common access rights.  The  name  of
       the group is the username of the group leader. Each member of the group
       inherits the permissions that are granted to  the  group  leader.  That
       means,  if  a user fails an access check, another check is made for the
       group leader.  A user is removed from  all  groups  the  special  value
       "none"  is  used for groupname.  If the second parameter is omitted all
       groups the user is in are listed.

       aclumask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits .... ]
       umask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits .... ]
       When  any  activity  occurs  in a background window that is being moni-
       tored, screen displays a notification in the message line.  The notifi-
       cation  message  can  be re-defined by means of the "activity" command.
       Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by the number of the win-
       dow  in  which  activity  has  occurred, and each occurrence of `^G' is
       replaced by the definition for bell in your termcap (usually an audible
       bell).  The default message is

                   'Activity in window %n'

       Note  that  monitoring  is  off  for all windows by default, but can be
       altered by use of the "monitor" command (C-a M).

       allpartial on|off

       If set to on, only the current  cursor  line  is  refreshed  on  window
       change.   This  affects  all  windows  and  is useful for slow terminal
       lines. The previous setting of full/partial refresh for each window  is
       restored with "allpartial off".  This is a global flag that immediately
       takes effect on all windows overriding the "partial" settings. It  does
       not change the default redraw behavior of newly created windows.

       altscreen on|off

       If  set  to on, "alternate screen" support is enabled in virtual termi-
       nals, just like in xterm.  Initial setting is `off'.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args ... ]

       Execute a command at other displays  or  windows  as  if  it  had  been
       entered there.  "At" changes the context (the `current window' or `cur-
       rent display' setting) of the command. If the first parameter describes
       a  non-unique  context, the command will be executed multiple times. If
       the first parameter is of the form  `identifier*'  then  identifier  is
       matched against user names.  The command is executed once for each dis-
       play of the selected user(s). If the first parameter  is  of  the  form
       `identifier%'  identifier  is  matched  against  displays. Displays are
       named after the ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or `/dev/tty'  may
       be  omitted  from  the  identifier.  If identifier has a `#' or nothing
       appended it is matched against window numbers and titles.  Omitting  an
       identifier in front of the `#', `*' or `%'-character selects all users,
       displays or windows because a prefix-match is performed. Note  that  on
       the  affected  display(s)  a short message will describe what happened.
       Permission is checked for initiator of the "at" command,  not  for  the
       owners  of  the affected display(s).  Note that the '#' character works
       as a comment introducer when it is preceded by whitespace. This can  be
       escaped by prefixing a '\'.  Permission is checked for the initiator of
       the "at" command, not for the owners of the affected display(s).
       Caveat: When matching against windows, the command is executed at least
       once  per window. Commands that change the internal arrangement of win-
       dows (like "other") may be called again. In shared windows the  command
       will be repeated for each attached display. Beware, when issuing toggle

              attrcolor b "R"

       Change the color to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

              attrcolor u "-u b"

       Use blue text instead of underline.

              attrcolor b ".I"

       Use bright colors for  bold  text.  Most  terminal  emulators  do  this

              attrcolor i "+b"

       Make bright colored text also bold.

       autodetach on|off

       Sets  whether screen will automatically detach upon hangup, which saves
       all your running programs until they are resumed with a screen -r  com-
       mand.   When  turned off, a hangup signal will terminate screen and all
       the processes it contains. Autodetach is on by default.

       autonuke on|off

       Sets whether a clear screen sequence should nuke all  the  output  that
       has not been written to the terminal. See also "obuflimit".

       backtick id lifespan autorefresh cmd args...
       backtick id

       Program  the  backtick command with the numerical id id.  The output of
       such a command is used for substitution of the "%`" string escape.  The
       specified  lifespan  is  the number of seconds the output is considered
       valid. After this time, the command is run  again  if  a  corresponding
       string  escape  is  encountered.  The autorefresh parameter triggers an
       automatic refresh for caption and hardstatus strings after  the  speci-
       fied  number  of seconds. Only the last line of output is used for sub-
       If both the lifespan and the autorefresh parameters are zero, the back-
       tick  program is expected to stay in the background and generate output
       once in a while.  In this case, the command is executed right away  and
       screen  stores  the  last  line  of  output. If a new line gets printed
       screen will automatically refresh the hardstatus or the captions.
       The second form of the command deletes the backtick  command  with  the
       numerical id id.

       bce [on|off]

                   'Bell in window %n'

       An  empty message can be supplied to the "bell_msg" command to suppress
       output of a message line (bell_msg "").  Without parameter, the current
       message is shown.

       bind [-c class] key [command [args]]

       Bind  a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands provided by
       screen are bound to one or more keys as indicated in the  "DEFAULT  KEY
       BINDINGS"  section, e.g. the command to create a new window is bound to
       "C-c" and "c".  The "bind" command can be  used  to  redefine  the  key
       bindings and to define new bindings.  The key argument is either a sin-
       gle character, a two-character sequence of the form "^x"  (meaning  "C-
       x"), a backslash followed by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code
       of the character), or a backslash followed by a second character,  such
       as  "\^" or "\\".  The argument can also be quoted, if you like.  If no
       further argument is given, any previously established binding for  this
       key is removed.  The command argument can be any command listed in this

       If a command class is specified via the "-c" option, the key  is  bound
       for the specified class. Use the "command" command to activate a class.
       Command classes can be used to create multiple command keys  or  multi-
       character bindings.

       Some examples:

                   bind ' ' windows
                   bind ^k
                   bind k
                   bind K kill
                   bind ^f screen telnet foobar
                   bind \033 screen -ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would bind the space key to the command that displays a list of windows
       (so that the command usually invoked by "C-a C-w" would also be  avail-
       able  as  "C-a  space").  The  next three lines remove the default kill
       binding from "C-a C-k" and "C-a k".  "C-a K" is then bound to the  kill
       command.  Then  it  binds  "C-f" to the command "create a window with a
       TELNET connection to foobar", and bind "escape"  to  the  command  that
       creates an non-login window with a.k.a. "root" in slot #9, with a supe-
       ruser shell and a scrollback buffer of 1000 lines.

                   bind -c demo1 0 select 10
                   bind -c demo1 1 select 11
                   bind -c demo1 2 select 12
                   bindkey "^B" command -c demo1

       makes "C-b 0" select window 10, "C-b 1" window 11, etc.

                   bind -c demo2 0 select 10

       If the -d option is given,  bindkey  modifies  the  default  table,  -m
       changes  the  copy mode table and with neither option the user table is
       selected.  The argument string is the sequence of characters  to  which
       an action is bound. This can either be a fixed string or a termcap key-
       board capability name (selectable with the -k option).
       Some keys on a VT100 terminal can send a different string  if  applica-
       tion  mode  is  turned  on  (e.g  the cursor keys).  Such keys have two
       entries in the translation table. You can select the  application  mode
       entry by specifying the -a option.
       The -t option tells screen not to do inter-character timing. One cannot
       turn off the timing if a termcap capability is used.
       Cmd can be any of screen's commands with an arbitrary number  of  args.
       If cmd is omitted the key-binding is removed from the table.
       Here are some examples of keyboard bindings:

               bindkey -d
       Show  all of the default key bindings. The application mode entries are
       marked with [A].

               bindkey -k k1 select 1
       Make the "F1" key switch to window one.

               bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo
       Make "foo" an abbreviation of the word "barfoo". Timeout is disabled so
       that users can type slowly.

               bindkey "\024" mapdefault
       This  key-binding  makes  "^T" an escape character for key-bindings. If
       you did the above "stuff barfoo" binding, you can enter the word  "foo"
       by  typing  "^Tfoo". If you want to insert a "^T" you have to press the
       key twice (i.e., escape the escape binding).

               bindkey -k F1 command
       Make the F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen escape (besides ^A).

       break [duration]

       Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to this window.  For non-
       Posix  systems  the  time  interval  may be rounded up to full seconds.
       Most useful if a character device is attached to the window rather than
       a shell process (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES"). The maximum duration
       of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.


       Activate the screen blanker. First the screen is cleared. If no blanker
       program is defined, the cursor is turned off, otherwise, the program is
       started and it's output is written to the screen.  The  screen  blanker
       is killed with the first keypress, the read key is discarded.
       This command is normally used together with the "idle" command.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change the filename used for reading and writing with the paste buffer.
       If the optional argument to the "bufferfile" command  is  omitted,  the
       default setting ("/tmp/screen-exchange") is reactivated.  The following
       example will paste the system's password file into  the  screen  window
       (using the paste buffer, where a copy remains):

                   C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
                   C-a < C-a ]
                   C-a : bufferfile

       c1 [on|off]

       Change  c1  code  processing.  "C1  on" tells screen to treat the input
       characters between 128 and 159 as control  functions.   Such  an  8-bit
       code  is  normally  the same as ESC followed by the corresponding 7-bit
       code. The default setting is to process c1 codes  and  can  be  changed
       with the "defc1" command.  Users with fonts that have usable characters
       in the c1 positions may want to turn this off.

       caption always|splitonly [string]
       caption string [string]

       This command controls the display of the window  captions.  Normally  a
       caption  is  only  used if more than one window is shown on the display
       (split screen mode). But if the type is set to always  screen  shows  a
       caption even if only one window is displayed. The default is splitonly.

       The  second form changes the text used for the caption. You can use all
       escapes from the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen  uses  a  default  of
       `%3n %t'.

       You can mix both forms by providing a string as an additional argument.

       charset set

       Change  the current character set slot designation and charset mapping.
       The first four character of set  are  treated  as  charset  designators
       while the fifth and sixth character must be in range '0' to '3' and set
       the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a '.' may be used to indi-
       cate  that the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed (set
       is padded to six characters internally by appending  '.'   chars).  New
       windows  have  "BBBB02" as default charset, unless a "encoding" command
       is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change the current directory of screen to the specified  directory  or,
       if called without an argument, to your home directory (the value of the
       environment variable $HOME).  All windows that are created by means  of

       Allows you to enter ".screenrc" command lines.  Useful  for  on-the-fly
       modification  of  key  bindings,  specific window creation and changing
       settings. Note that the "set" keyword no longer  exists!  Usually  com-
       mands affect the current window rather than default settings for future
       windows. Change defaults with commands starting with 'def...'.

       If you consider this as the `Ex command mode' of screen, you may regard
       "C-a esc" (copy mode) as its `Vi command mode'.

       command [-c class]

       This  command has the same effect as typing the screen escape character
       (^A). It is probably only useful for key bindings.  If the "-c"  option
       is  given,  select  the  specified  command class.  See also "bind" and

       compacthist [on|off]

       This tells  screen  whether  to  suppress  trailing  blank  lines  when
       scrolling up text into the history buffer.

       console [on|off]

       Grabs  or un-grabs the machines console output to a window.  Note: Only
       the owner of /dev/console can grab the console output.  This command is
       only available if the machine supports the ioctl TIOCCONS.


       Enter  copy/scrollback mode. This allows you to copy text from the cur-
       rent window and its history into the paste buffer. In this mode  a  vi-
       like `full screen editor' is active:
       Movement keys:
         h, C-h, or left arrow move the cursor left.
         j, C-n, or down arrow move the cursor down.
         k, C-p, or up arrow move the cursor up.
         l ('el') or right arrow move the cursor right.
         0 (zero) or C-a move to the leftmost column.
         + and - positions one line up and down.
         H,  M and L move the cursor to the leftmost column of the top, center
           or bottom line of the window.
         | moves to the specified absolute column.
         g or home moves to the beginning of the buffer.
         G or end moves to the specified absolute line (default: end  of  buf-
         % jumps to the specified percentage of the buffer.
         ^  or  $ move to the leftmost column, to the first or last non-white-
           space character on the line.
         w, b, and e move the cursor word by word.
         B, E move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).
         f/F, t/T move the cursor forward/backward to the  next  occurence  of
           full emacs-style keymap, as this involves multi-character codes.

           The copy range is specified by setting two marks. The text  between
           these marks will be highlighted. Press:
         space  or  enter  to  set  the  first or second mark respectively. If
           mousetrack is set to `on', marks can also be set using  left  mouse
         Y and y used to mark one whole line or to mark from start of line.
         W marks exactly one word.
       Repeat count:
           Any of these commands can be prefixed with a repeat count number by
           pressing digits
         0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.
           Example: "C-a C-[ H 10 j 5 Y" will copy lines 11  to  15  into  the
           paste buffer.
         / Vi-like search forward.
         ? Vi-like search backward.
         C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.
         C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.
         n Find next search pattern.
         N Find previous search pattern.
           There  are  however  some keys that act differently than in vi.  Vi
           does not allow one to yank rectangular blocks of text,  but  screen
           does. Press:
         c  or  C  to  set the left or right margin respectively. If no repeat
           count is given, both default to the current cursor position.
           Example: Try this on a rather full text screen: "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE
           c 10 l 5 j C SPACE".

           This  moves  one to the middle line of the screen, moves in 20 col-
           umns left, marks the beginning of the paste buffer, sets  the  left
           column, moves 5 columns down, sets the right column, and then marks
           the end of the paste buffer. Now try:
           "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j SPACE"

           and notice the difference in the amount of text copied.
         J joins lines. It toggles between 4 modes: lines separated by a  new-
           line  character  (012),  lines glued seamless, lines separated by a
           single whitespace and comma separated  lines.  Note  that  you  can
           prepend  the newline character with a carriage return character, by
           issuing a "crlf on".
         v or V is for all the vi users with ":set numbers" - it  toggles  the
           left margin between column 9 and 1. Press
         a  before the final space key to toggle in append mode. Thus the con-
           tents of the paste buffer will not be overwritten, but is  appended
         A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.
         >  sets the (second) mark and writes the contents of the paste buffer
           to the screen-exchange file (/tmp/screen-exchange per default) once

       crlf [on|off]

       This  affects  the copying of text regions with the `C-a [' command. If
       it is set to `on',  lines  will  be  separated  by  the  two  character
       sequence  `CR' - `LF'.  Otherwise (default) only `LF' is used.  When no
       parameter is given, the state is toggled.

       debug on|off

       Turns runtime debugging on or off. If screen  has  been  compiled  with
       option  -DDEBUG  debugging available and is turned on per default. Note
       that this command only affects debugging output from the main  "SCREEN"
       process  correctly.  Debug  output  from attacher processes can only be
       turned off once and forever.

       defc1 on|off

       Same as the c1 command except that the default setting for new  windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `on'.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same  as  the  autonuke command except that the default setting for new
       displays is changed. Initial setting is `off'.  Note that you  can  use
       the  special  `AN' terminal capability if you want to have a dependency
       on the terminal type.

       defbce on|off

       Same as the bce command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose  one  of  the available methods of generating a break signal for
       terminal devices. The preferred methods are tcsendbreak  and  TIOCSBRK.
       The  third, TCSBRK, blocks the complete screen session for the duration
       of the break, but it may be the  only  way  to  generate  long  breaks.
       Tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK may or may not produce long breaks with spikes
       (e.g. 4 per second). This is not only system-dependent, this also  dif-
       fers  between  serial  board  drivers.   Calling "defbreaktype" with no
       parameter displays the current setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like the charset command except that the default setting for  new  win-
       dows is changed. Shows current default if called without argument.

       defescape xy

       Set  the default command characters. This is equivalent to the "escape"
       except that it is useful multiuser sessions only. In a  multiuser  ses-

       defhstatus [status]

       The hardstatus line that all new windows will get  is  set  to  status.
       This  command  is useful to make the hardstatus of every window display
       the window number or title or the like.  Status may  contain  the  same
       directives  as in the window messages, but the directive escape charac-
       ter is '^E' (octal 005) instead of '%'.  This was done to make a misin-
       terpretation  of program generated hardstatus lines impossible.  If the
       parameter status is omitted, the current default string  is  displayed.
       Per default the hardstatus line of new windows is empty.

       defencoding enc

       Same  as  the  encoding command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is the encoding taken from the ter-

       deflog on|off

       Same as the log command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       deflogin on|off

       Same as the login command except that the default setting for new  win-
       dows is changed. This is initialized with `on' as distributed (see con-

       defmode mode

       The mode of each newly allocated pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is an
       octal number.  When no "defmode" command is given, mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor on|off

       Same  as  the  monitor  command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defmousetrack on|off

       Same as the mousetrack command except that the default setting for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defnonblock on|off|numsecs

       Same  as  the nonblock command except that the default setting for dis-
       plays is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same as the obuflimit command except that the default setting  for  new

       Same as the silence command except that the  default  setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec"

       Same  as  the slowpaste command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 0 milliseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 on|off

       Same as the utf8 command except that the default setting for  new  win-
       dows  is  changed.  Initial  setting is `on' if screen was started with
       "-U", otherwise `off'.

       defwrap on|off

       Same as the wrap command except that the default setting for  new  win-
       dows  is changed. Initially line-wrap is on and can be toggled with the
       "wrap" command ("C-a r") or by means of "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock on|off|auto

       Same as the writelock command except that the default setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initially writelocks will off.

       defzombie [keys]

       Synonym  to the zombie command. Both currently change the default.  See

       detach [-h]

       Detach the screen session (disconnect it from the terminal and  put  it
       into  the background).  This returns you to the shell where you invoked
       screen.  A detached screen can be resumed by invoking screen  with  the
       -r  option  (see  also  section  "COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS"). The -h option
       tells screen to  immediately  close  the  connection  to  the  terminal


       Show what screen thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want to know
       why features like color or the alternate charset don't work.


       Shows a tabular listing of  all  currently  connected  user  front-ends
       (displays).  This is most useful for multiuser sessions.  The following
       keys can be used in displays list:
         k, C-p, or up Move up one line.
         j, C-n, or down Move down one line.
              facit 80x24 mlschroe@/dev/ttyhf nb 11(tcsh)   rwx
              xterm 80x42 jnhollma@/dev/ttyp5     0(m11)   &R.x
               (A)   (B)     (C)     (D)     (E) (F)(G)   (H)(I)

       The legend is as follows:
       (A) The terminal type known by screen for this display.
       (B) Displays geometry as width x height.
       (C) Username who is logged in at the display.
       (D) Device name of the display or the attached device
       (E) Display is in blocking or nonblocking mode. The available modes are
       "nb", "NB", "Z<", "Z>", and "BL".
       (F) Number of the window
       (G) Name/title of window
       (H) Whether the window is shared
       (I) Window permissions. Made up of three characters:
             (1st character)
                `-' : no read
                `r' : read
                `R' : read only due to foreign wlock
             (2nd character)
                `-' : no write
                `.' : write suppressed by foreign wlock
                `w' : write
                `W' : own wlock
             (3rd character)
                `-' : no execute
                `x' : execute

       "Displays" needs a region size of at least 10  characters  wide  and  5
       characters high in order to display.

       digraph [preset[unicode-value]]

       This  command  prompts  the  user  for a digraph sequence. The next two
       characters typed are looked up in a builtin  table  and  the  resulting
       character  is  inserted  in  the input stream. For example, if the user
       enters 'a"', an a-umlaut will  be  inserted.  If  the  first  character
       entered  is  a 0 (zero), screen will treat the following characters (up
       to three) as an octal number instead.  The optional argument preset  is
       treated  as user input, thus one can create an "umlaut" key.  For exam-
       ple the command "bindkey ^K digraph '"'" enables the user  to  generate
       an a-umlaut by typing CTRL-K a.  When a non-zero unicode-value is spec-
       ified, a new digraph is created with the specified preset. The  digraph
       is unset if a zero value is provided for the unicode-value.


       Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal optimized for the cur-
       rently  active  window  to  the   file   ".termcap"   in   the   user's
       "$HOME/.screen"  directory  (or wherever screen stores its sockets. See
       the "FILES" section below).  This termcap entry  is  identical  to  the
       value of the environment variable $TERMCAP that is set up by screen for
       encoding. The optional second parameter overwrites the encoding of  the
       connected terminal. It should never be needed as screen uses the locale
       setting to detect the encoding.  There is also a way to select a termi-
       nal  encoding  depending on the terminal type by using the "KJ" termcap

       Supported encodings are eucJP, SJIS, eucKR, eucCN, Big5,  GBK,  KOI8-R,
       CP1251,  UTF-8,  ISO8859-2, ISO8859-3, ISO8859-4, ISO8859-5, ISO8859-6,
       ISO8859-7, ISO8859-8, ISO8859-9, ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15, jis.

       See also "defencoding", which changes the default setting of a new win-

       escape xy

       Set  the  command character to x and the character generating a literal
       command character (by triggering the "meta" command) to y  (similar  to
       the  -e  option).   Each  argument is either a single character, a two-
       character sequence of the form "^x" (meaning "C-x"), a  backslash  fol-
       lowed  by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the character),
       or a backslash followed by a second character, such as  "\^"  or  "\\".
       The default is "^Aa".

       eval command1 [command2 ...]

       Parses and executes each argument as separate command.

       exec [[fdpat] newcommand [args ...]]

       Run  a  unix subprocess (specified by an executable path newcommand and
       its optional arguments) in the current window. The flow of data between
       newcommands  stdin/stdout/stderr, the process originally started in the
       window (let us call it "application-process") and screen  itself  (win-
       dow)  is controlled by the file descriptor pattern fdpat.  This pattern
       is basically a three character sequence representing stdin, stdout  and
       stderr of newcommand. A dot (.) connects the file descriptor to screen.
       An exclamation mark (!) causes the file descriptor to be  connected  to
       the application-process. A colon (:) combines both.  User input will go
       to newcommand unless newcommand receives the application-process'  out-
       put  (fdpats  first  character  is  `!' or `:') or a pipe symbol (|) is
       added (as a fourth character) to the end of fdpat.
       Invoking `exec' without arguments shows name and arguments of the  cur-
       rently  running  subprocess  in this window. Only one subprocess a time
       can be running in each window.
       When a subprocess is running the `kill' command will affect it  instead
       of the windows process.
       Refer  to  the postscript file `doc/fdpat.ps' for a confusing illustra-
       tion of all 21 possible combinations. Each  drawing  shows  the  digits
       2,1,0  representing  the  three file descriptors of newcommand. The box
       marked `W' is the usual pty that has  the  application-process  on  its
       slave  side.   The  box  marked  `P'  is the secondary pty that now has
       screen at its master side.
       still running. Output of both shells is displayed  and  user  input  is
       sent to the new /bin/sh.

              exec !.. stty 19200
              exec ! stty 19200
              !!stty 19200

       Set  the  speed  of  the window's tty. If your stty command operates on
       stdout, then add another `!'.

              exec !..| less

       This adds a pager to the window output. The special  character  `|'  is
       needed  to  give  the  user control over the pager although it gets its
       input from the window's process. This works, because  less  listens  on
       stderr  (a  behavior that screen would not expect without the `|') when
       its stdin is not a tty.  Less versions newer than  177  fail  miserably
       here; good old pg still works.

              !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

       Sends  window  output  to  both,  the user and the sed command. The sed
       inserts an additional bell character (oct. 007) to  the  window  output
       seen  by screen.  This will cause "Bell in window x" messages, whenever
       the string "Error" appears in the window.


       Change the window size to the size of the current region. This  command
       is needed because screen doesn't adapt the window size automatically if
       the window is displayed more than once.

       flow [on|off|auto]

       Sets the flow-control mode for  this  window.   Without  parameters  it
       cycles  the  current  window's flow-control setting from "automatic" to
       "on" to "off".  See the discussion on "FLOW-CONTROL" later on  in  this
       document  for  full details and note, that this is subject to change in
       future releases.  Default is set by `defflow'.

       focus [up|down|top|bottom]

       Move the input focus to the next region. This is done in a  cyclic  way
       so  that the top region is selected after the bottom one. If no subcom-
       mand is given it defaults to `down'. `up' cycles in the opposite order,
       `top' and `bottom' go to the top and bottom region respectively. Useful
       bindings are (j and k as in vi)
           bind j focus down
           bind k focus up
           bind t focus top
           bind b focus bottom

       gr [on|off]

       Turn GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an input charac-
       ter with the 8th bit set, it will use the charset stored in the GR slot
       and print the character with the 8th bit  stripped.  The  default  (see
       also  "defgr")  is  not  to  process GR switching because otherwise the
       ISO88591 charset would not work.

       group [grouptitle]

       Change or show the group the current window belongs to. Windows can  be
       moved  around  between  different  groups by specifying the name of the
       destination group. Without specifying a group, the title of the current
       group is displayed.

       hardcopy [-h] [file]

       Writes  out  the  currently displayed image to the file file, or, if no
       filename is specified, to hardcopy.n in the default directory, where  n
       is the number of the current window.  This either appends or overwrites
       the file if it exists. See below.  If the option -h is specified,  dump
       also the contents of the scrollback buffer.

       hardcopy_append on|off

       If set to "on", screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files created by
       the command "C-a h", otherwise these files are overwritten  each  time.
       Default is `off'.

       hardcopydir directory

       Defines  a  directory  where  hardcopy  files will be placed. If unset,
       hardcopys are dumped in screen's current working directory.

       hardstatus [on|off]
       hardstatus [always]lastline|message|ignore [string]
       hardstatus string [string]

       This command configures the use and emulation of the  terminal's  hard-
       status  line.  The first form toggles whether screen will use the hard-
       ware status line to display messages. If the  flag  is  set  to  `off',
       these  messages are overlaid in reverse video mode at the display line.
       The default setting is `on'.

       The second form tells screen what to do if the terminal doesn't have  a
       hardstatus  line  (i.e.  the  termcap/terminfo capabilities "hs", "ts",
       "fs" and "ds" are not set). If the type "lastline" is used, screen will
       reserve the last line of the display for the hardstatus. "message" uses
       screen's message mechanism and "ignore" tells screen never  to  display
       the  hardstatus.   If  you prepend the word "always" to the type (e.g.,
       "alwayslastline"), screen will use the type even if the  terminal  sup-
       ports a hardstatus.
       is given it toggles between 24 and 42 lines display. You can also spec-
       ify  a  width  if  you want to change both values.  The -w option tells
       screen to leave the display size unchanged  and  just  set  the  window
       size, -d vice versa.

       help [-c class]

       Not  really  a  online help, but displays a help screen showing you all
       the key bindings.  The first pages list all the internal commands  fol-
       lowed  by  their  current  bindings.  Subsequent pages will display the
       custom commands, one command per key.  Press  space  when  you're  done
       reading  each  page, or return to exit early.  All other characters are
       ignored. If the "-c" option is given, display all  bound  commands  for
       the specified command class.  See also "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section.


       Usually  users  work  with  a shell that allows easy access to previous
       commands.  For example csh has the command "!!" to repeat the last com-
       mand executed.  Screen allows you to have a primitive way of re-calling
       "the command that started ...": You just type the first letter of  that
       command, then hit `C-a {' and screen tries to find a previous line that
       matches with the `prompt character' to the left  of  the  cursor.  This
       line  is  pasted into this window's input queue.  Thus you have a crude
       command history (made up by the visible window and its scrollback  buf-

       hstatus status

       Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.

       idle [timeout [cmd args]]

       Sets  a command that is run after the specified number of seconds inac-
       tivity is reached. This command will normally be the "blanker"  command
       to  create  a  screen blanker, but it can be any screen command.  If no
       command is specified, only the timeout is set. A timeout  of  zero  (or
       the  special  timeout  off)  disables  the  timer.  If no arguments are
       given, the current settings are displayed.

       ignorecase [on|off]

       Tell screen to ignore the case of characters in  searches.  Default  is
       `off'. Without any options, the state of ignorecase is toggled.


       Uses  the  message  line  to display some information about the current
       window: the cursor position in the form  "(column,row)"  starting  with
       "(1,1)",  the terminal width and height plus the size of the scrollback
       buffer in lines, like in "(80,24)+50",  the  current  state  of  window
       XON/XOFF  flow  control  is shown like this (See also section FLOW CON-

       The currently active character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3)  and  in  square
       brackets  the  terminal character sets that are currently designated as
       G0 through G3 is shown. If the window is  in  UTF-8  mode,  the  string
       "UTF-8" is shown instead.

       Additional  modes  depending on the type of the window are displayed at
       the end of the status line (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES").
       If the state machine of the  terminal  emulator  is  in  a  non-default
       state,  the  info line is started with a string identifying the current
       For system information use the "time" command.

       ins_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "paste" instead.


       Kill current window.
       If there is an `exec' command running then it is killed. Otherwise  the
       process  (shell) running in the window receives a HANGUP condition, the
       window structure is removed  and  screen  (your  display)  switches  to
       another  window.   When  the  last  window  is destroyed, screen exits.
       After a kill screen switches to the previously displayed window.
       Note: Emacs users should keep this command  in  mind,  when  killing  a
       line.   It  is recommended not to use "C-a" as the screen escape key or
       to rebind kill to "C-a K".


       Redisplay the last contents of  the  message/status  line.   Useful  if
       you're  typing  when  a message appears, because  the message goes away
       when you press a key (unless your terminal has a hardware status line).
       Refer to the commands "msgwait" and "msgminwait" for fine tuning.

       layout new [title]

       Create  a new layout. The screen will change to one whole region and be
       switched to the blank window. From here, you build the regions and  the
       windows  they  show as you desire. The new layout will be numbered with
       the smallest available integer, starting with zero. You can  optionally
       give  a  title  to  your new layout.  Otherwise, it will have a default
       title of "layout". You can always change the title later by  using  the
       command layout title.

       layout remove [n|title]

       Remove, or in other words, delete the specified layout. Either the num-
       ber or the title can be specified. Without either specification, screen
       will remove the current layout.

       screen  is  desired. To see which layouts are available, use the layout
       show command.

       layout show

       List on the message line the number(s) and title(s)  of  the  available
       layout(s). The current layout is flagged.

       layout title [title]

       Change  or display the title of the current layout. A string given will
       be used to name the layout. Without any options, the current title  and
       number is displayed on the message line.

       layout number [n]

       Change  or  display  the number of the current layout. An integer given
       will be used to number the layout. Without  any  options,  the  current
       number and title is displayed on the message line.

       layout attach [title|:last]

       Change  or  display  which  layout  to reattach back to. The default is
       :last, which tells screen to reattach back to the last used layout just
       before  detachment.  By  supplying  a title, You can instruct screen to
       reattach to a particular layout regardless which one was  used  at  the
       time of detachment. Without any options, the layout to reattach to will
       be shown in the message line.

       layout save [n|title]

       Remember the current arrangement of regions.  When  used,  screen  will
       remember  the arrangement of vertically and horizontally split regions.
       This arrangement is restored when a screen  session  is  reattached  or
       switched  back  from  a  different  layout.  If the session ends or the
       screen process dies, the layout arrangements are lost. The layout  dump
       command  should  help  in  this siutation. If a number or title is sup-
       plied, screen will remember the arrangement of that particular  layout.
       Without any options, screen will remember the current layout.

       Saving  your  regions  can  be  done  automatically by using the layout
       autosave command.

       layout autosave [on|off]

       Change or display  the  status  of  automatcally  saving  layouts.  The
       default  is on, meaning when screen is detached or changed to a differ-
       ent layout, the arrangement of regions and windows will  be  remembered
       at  the time of change and restored upon return.  If autosave is set to
       off, that arrangement will only be restored to either to the last  man-
       ual  save,  using layout save, or to when the layout was first created,
       to a single region with a single window. Without either an on  or  off,

       will save or append the layout to the user's .screenrc file.


       Display the disclaimer page. This is done whenever  screen  is  started
       without   options,   which   should  be  often  enough.  See  also  the
       "startup_message" command.


       Lock this  display.   Call  a  screenlock  program  (/local/bin/lck  or
       /usr/bin/lock  or  a builtin if no other is available). Screen does not
       accept any command keys until this program terminates.  Meanwhile  pro-
       cesses  in  the  windows  may  continue,  as  the  windows  are  in the
       `detached' state. The screenlock program may  be  changed  through  the
       environment  variable  $LOCKPRG  (which  must  be set in the shell from
       which screen is started) and is executed with the user's uid and gid.
       Warning: When you leave other shells unlocked and you have no  password
       set  on  screen,  the  lock is void: One could easily re-attach from an
       unlocked shell. This feature should rather be called `lockterminal'.

       log [on|off]

       Start/stop writing output of the current window to a file "screenlog.n"
       in the window's default directory, where n is the number of the current
       window. This filename can be changed with the `logfile' command. If  no
       parameter is given, the state of logging is toggled. The session log is
       appended to the previous contents of the file if it already exists. The
       current  contents  and  the  contents of the scrollback history are not
       included in the session log.  Default is `off'.

       logfile filename
       logfile flush secs

       Defines the name the log files will get. The default is "screenlog.%n".
       The  second  form changes the number of seconds screen will wait before
       flushing the logfile buffer to the file-system. The default value is 10

       login [on|off]

       Adds  or  removes  the  entry in the utmp database file for the current
       window.  This controls if the window is `logged in'.  When no parameter
       is  given,  the  login state of the window is toggled.  Additionally to
       that toggle, it is convenient having a `log in' and a  `log  out'  key.
       E.g. `bind I login on' and `bind O login off' will map these keys to be
       C-a I and C-a O.  The default setting (in config.h.in) should  be  "on"
       for  a screen that runs under suid-root.  Use the "deflogin" command to
       change the default login state for new windows. Both commands are  only
       present when screen has been compiled with utmp support.

       Tell screen that the next input character should only be looked  up  in
       the default bindkey table. See also "bindkey".


       Like mapdefault, but don't even look in the default bindkey table.

       maptimeout [timeout]

       Set the inter-character timer for input sequence detection to a timeout
       of timeout ms. The default timeout is 300ms. Maptimeout with  no  argu-
       ments shows the current setting.  See also "bindkey".

       markkeys string

       This  is  a  method  of changing the keymap used for copy/history mode.
       The string is made up of oldchar=newchar pairs which are  separated  by
       `:'. Example: The string "B=^B:F=^F" will change the keys `C-b' and `C-
       f' to the vi style binding (scroll up/down fill page).  This happens to
       be  the  default  binding  for  `B'  and  `F'.   The  command "markkeys
       h=^B:l=^F:$=^E" would set the mode for an emacs-style binding.  If your
       terminal sends characters, that cause you to abort copy mode, then this
       command may help by binding these characters to do nothing.  The  no-op
       character  is `@' and is used like this: "markkeys @=L=H" if you do not
       want to use the `H' or `L' commands any longer.  As shown in this exam-
       ple,  multiple  keys can be assigned to one function in a single state-

       maxwin num

       Set the maximum  window  number  screen  will  create.  Doesn't  affect
       already  existing  windows. The number can be increased only when there
       are no existing windows.


       Insert the command  character  (C-a)  in  the  current  window's  input

       monitor [on|off]

       Toggles  activity  monitoring of windows.  When monitoring is turned on
       and an affected window  is  switched  into  the  background,  you  will
       receive  the  activity  notification  message in the status line at the
       first sign of output and the window will also be marked with an `@'  in
       the  window-status  display.   Monitoring is initially off for all win-

       mousetrack [on|off]

       This command determines whether screen will  watch  for  mouse  clicks.

       multiuser on|off

       Switch between singleuser and multiuser mode. Standard screen operation
       is  singleuser.  In  multiuser  mode  the  commands `acladd', `aclchg',
       `aclgrp' and `acldel' can be used to enable (and disable)  other  users
       accessing this screen session.

       nethack on|off

       Changes the kind of error messages used by screen.  When you are famil-
       iar with the game "nethack", you may enjoy the  nethack-style  messages
       which will often blur the facts a little, but are much funnier to read.
       Anyway, standard messages often tend to be unclear as well.
       This option is only available if screen was compiled with  the  NETHACK
       flag defined. The default setting is then determined by the presence of
       the environment variable $NETHACKOPTIONS and the file ~/.nethackrc - if
       either one is present, the default is on.


       Switch  to  the  next  window.   This command can be used repeatedly to
       cycle through the list of windows.

       nonblock [on|off|numsecs]

       Tell screen how to deal with user interfaces (displays) that  cease  to
       accept output. This can happen if a user presses ^S or a TCP/modem con-
       nection gets cut but no hangup is received. If nonblock is off (this is
       the default) screen waits until the display restarts to accept the out-
       put. If nonblock is on, screen waits until the timeout is  reached  (on
       is  treated  as  1s).  If the display still doesn't receive characters,
       screen will consider it "blocked" and stop sending characters to it. If
       at  some time it restarts to accept characters, screen will unblock the
       display and redisplay the updated window contents.

       number [[+|-]n]

       Change the current window's number. If the given number  n  is  already
       used  by  another  window,  both  windows exchange their numbers. If no
       argument is specified, the current window number (and title) is  shown.
       Using `+' or `-' will change the window's number by the relative amount

       obuflimit [limit]

       If the output buffer contains more bytes than the specified  limit,  no
       more  data  will be read from the windows. The default value is 256. If
       you have a fast display (like xterm), you can set  it  to  some  higher
       value. If no argument is specified, the current setting is displayed.

       is currently no defpartial command.

       password [crypted_pw]

       Present a crypted password in your ".screenrc" file and screen will ask
       for  it, whenever someone attempts to resume a detached. This is useful
       if you have privileged programs running under screen and  you  want  to
       protect  your session from reattach attempts by another user masquerad-
       ing as your uid (i.e. any superuser.)  If no crypted password is speci-
       fied, screen prompts twice for typing a password and places its encryp-
       tion in the paste buffer.  Default is `none',  this  disables  password

       paste [registers [dest_reg]]

       Write  the  (concatenated)  contents  of the specified registers to the
       stdin queue of the current window. The register '.' is treated  as  the
       paste  buffer. If no parameter is given the user is prompted for a sin-
       gle register to paste.  The paste buffer can be filled with  the  copy,
       history  and  readbuf commands.  Other registers can be filled with the
       register, readreg and paste commands.  If paste is called with a second
       argument,  the  contents  of the specified registers is pasted into the
       named destination register rather than the window. If '.'  is  used  as
       the  second  argument,  the  displays  paste buffer is the destination.
       Note, that "paste" uses a wide variety of resources: Whenever a  second
       argument  is  specified  no  current  window is needed. When the source
       specification only contains registers (not the paste buffer) then there
       need not be a current display (terminal attached), as the registers are
       a global resource. The paste buffer exists once for every user.

       pastefont [on|off]

       Tell screen to include  font  information  in  the  paste  buffer.  The
       default  is  not  to do so. This command is especially useful for multi
       character fonts like kanji.


       Reopen the window's terminal line  and  send  a  break  condition.  See


       Power  detach.  Mainly the same as detach, but also sends a HANGUP sig-
       nal to the parent process of screen.  CAUTION: This will  result  in  a
       logout, when screen was started from your login shell.

       pow_detach_msg [message]

       The message specified here is output whenever a `Power detach' was per-
       formed. It may be used as a replacement for  a  logout  message  or  to
       reset baud rate, etc.  Without parameter, the current message is shown.
       Warning:  Be careful with this command! If other user have write access
       to your terminal, they will be able to fire off print commands.

       process [key]

       Stuff the contents of the specified register into screen's input queue.
       If  no argument is given you are prompted for a register name. The text
       is parsed as if it had been typed in from  the  user's  keyboard.  This
       command can be used to bind multiple actions to a single key.


       Kill all windows and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style termi-
       nals the keys C-4 and C-\ are identical.  This makes the default  bind-
       ings  dangerous:  Be  careful not to type C-a C-4 when selecting window
       no. 4.  Use the empty bind command (as in "bind '^\'") to remove a  key

       readbuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Reads  the  contents  of the specified file into the paste buffer.  You
       can tell screen the encoding of the file via the -e option.  If no file
       is  specified, the screen-exchange filename is used.  See also "buffer-
       file" command.

       readreg [-e encoding] [register [filename]]

       Does one of two things, dependent on number of arguments: with zero  or
       one  arguments it it duplicates the paste buffer contents into the reg-
       ister specified or entered at the prompt. With two arguments  it  reads
       the contents of the named file into the register, just as readbuf reads
       the screen-exchange file into the paste buffer.  You  can  tell  screen
       the encoding of the file via the -e option.  The following example will
       paste the system's password file into the screen window (using register
       p, where a copy remains):

                   C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
                   C-a : paste p


       Redisplay  the  current  window. Needed to get a full redisplay when in
       partial redraw mode.

       register [-e encoding] key string

       Save the specified string to the register key.   The  encoding  of  the
       string  can  be specified via the -e option.  See also the "paste" com-



       Reset  the  virtual  terminal  to  its  "power-on"  values. Useful when
       strange settings (like scroll regions or graphics  character  set)  are
       left over from an application.


       Resize  the  current region. The space will be removed from or added to
       the region below or if there's not enough space from the region above.

              resize +N   increase current region height by N

              resize -N   decrease current region height by N

              resize  N   set current region height to N

              resize  =   make all windows equally high

              resize  max maximize current region height

              resize  min minimize current region height

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]|//group]

       Establish a new window.  The flow-control options (-f,  -fn  and  -fa),
       title  (a.k.a.) option (-t), login options (-l and -ln) , terminal type
       option (-T <term>), the all-capability-flag (-a) and scrollback  option
       (-h  <num>)  may be specified with each command.  The option (-M) turns
       monitoring on for this window.  The option (-L) turns output logging on
       for  this  window.  If an optional number n in the range 0..MAXWIN-1 is
       given, the window number n is assigned to the newly created window (or,
       if  this  number  is  already in-use, the next available number).  If a
       command is specified after "screen", this command (with the given argu-
       ments)  is  started  in  the window; otherwise, a shell is created.  If
       //group is supplied, a container-type window is created in which  other
       windows may be created inside it.

       Thus, if your ".screenrc" contains the lines

                   # example for .screenrc:
                   screen 1
                   screen -fn -t foobar -L 2 telnet foobar

       screen creates a shell window (in window #1) and a window with a TELNET
       connection to the machine foobar (with no flow-control using the  title
       "foobar"  in window #2) and will write a logfile ("screenlog.2") of the
       telnet session.  Note, that unlike previous versions of screen no addi-
       tional default window is created when "screen" commands are included in
       your ".screenrc" file. When the  initialization  is  completed,  screen
       switches  to  the  last  window specified in your .screenrc file or, if
       window title (alphanumeric window name) or a window number.  The param-
       eter is optional and if omitted, you get prompted  for  an  identifier.
       When  a  new  window  is  established,  the  first  available number is
       assigned to this window.  Thus, the first window can  be  activated  by
       "select  0".   The  number of windows is limited at compile-time by the
       MAXWIN configuration parameter (which defaults to 40).  There  are  two
       special  WindowIDs,  "-"  selects  the  internal  blank  window and "."
       selects the current window. The latter is useful if used with  screen's
       "-X" option.

       sessionname [name]

       Rename  the  current  session.  Note,  that for "screen -list" the name
       shows up with the process-id prepended. If the argument "name" is omit-
       ted,  the name of this session is displayed. Caution: The $STY environ-
       ment variables will still reflect the old name in pre-existing  shells.
       This may result in confusion. Use of this command is generally discour-
       aged. Use the "-S" command-line option if you want to name a  new  ses-
       sion.  The default is constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var to value string.  If only var is spec-
       ified, the user will be prompted to enter a value.   If  no  parameters
       are  specified,  the user will be prompted for both variable and value.
       The environment is inherited by all subsequently forked shells.

       setsid [on|off]

       Normally screen uses different sessions and process groups for the win-
       dows. If setsid is turned off, this is not done anymore and all windows
       will be in the same process group as the screen backend  process.  This
       also  breaks job-control, so be careful.  The default is on, of course.
       This command is probably useful only in rare circumstances.

       shell command

       Set the command to be used to create a new shell.  This  overrides  the
       value of the environment variable $SHELL.  This is useful if you'd like
       to run a tty-enhancer which is expecting to execute the program  speci-
       fied  in  $SHELL. If the command begins with a '-' character, the shell
       will be started as a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set the title for all shells created during startup or by the  C-A  C-c
       command.   For  details about what a title is, see the discussion enti-
       tled "TITLES (naming windows)".

       silence [on|off|sec]

       Toggles silence monitoring of windows.  When silence is turned  on  and
       onds.   Keyboard  activity  will end the sleep.  It may be used to give
       users a chance to read the messages output by "echo".

       slowpaste msec

       Define the speed at which text is inserted into the current  window  by
       the paste ("C-a ]") command.  If the slowpaste value is nonzero text is
       written character by character.  screen will make a pause of msec  mil-
       liseconds after each single character write to allow the application to
       process its input. Only use slowpaste if your underlying system exposes
       flow control problems while pasting large amounts of text.

       source file

       Read and execute commands from file file. Source commands may be nested
       to a maximum recursion level of ten. If file is not  an  absolute  path
       and screen is already processing a source command, the parent directory
       of the running source command file is used to search for the  new  com-
       mand file before screen's current directory.

       Note  that  termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo  commands only work at startup
       and reattach time, so they must be reached  via  the  default  screenrc
       files to have an effect.

       sorendition [attr [color]]

       This command is deprecated. See "rendition so" instead.

       split [-v]

       Split  the current region into two new ones. All regions on the display
       are resized to make room for the new region. The blank window  is  dis-
       played  on  the  new  region. Splits are made horizontally unless -v is
       used. Use the "remove" or the "only" command  to  delete  regions.  Use
       "focus" to toggle between regions.

       startup_message on|off

       Select  whether  you  want  to see the copyright notice during startup.
       Default is `on', as you probably noticed.

       stuff [string]

       Stuff the string string in the input  buffer  of  the  current  window.
       This  is like the "paste" command but with much less overhead.  Without
       a paramter, screen will prompt for a string to stuff.  You cannot paste
       large buffers with the "stuff" command. It is most useful for key bind-
       ings. See also "bindkey".

       su [username [password [password2]]]

       Substitute the user of a display. The command prompts for  all  parame-

       term term

       In each window's environment screen opens, the $TERM variable is set to
       "screen" by default.  But when no description for "screen" is installed
       in the local termcap or terminfo data base, you set $TERM to  -  say  -
       "vt100".  This  won't do much harm, as screen is VT100/ANSI compatible.
       The use of the "term" command is discouraged for  non-default  purpose.
       That  is,  one  may want to specify special $TERM settings (e.g. vt100)
       for the next "screen rlogin  othermachine"  command.  Use  the  command
       "screen -T vt100 rlogin othermachine" rather than setting and resetting
       the default.

       termcap term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       terminfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]

       Use this command to modify your terminal's termcap entry without  going
       through  all  the  hassles involved in creating a custom termcap entry.
       Plus, you can optionally customize the termcap generated for  the  win-
       dows.   You have to place these commands in one of the screenrc startup
       files, as they are meaningless once the terminal emulator is booted.
       If your system works uses the terminfo database  rather  than  termcap,
       screen  will  understand  the  `terminfo'  command,  which has the same
       effects as the `termcap' command.  Two separate commands are  provided,
       as there are subtle syntactic differences, e.g. when parameter interpo-
       lation (using `%') is required. Note that termcap names of the capabil-
       ities have to be used with the `terminfo' command.
       In many cases, where the arguments are valid in both terminfo and term-
       cap syntax, you can use the command  `termcapinfo',  which  is  just  a
       shorthand  for a pair of `termcap' and `terminfo' commands with identi-
       cal arguments.

       The first argument specifies which terminal(s) should  be  affected  by
       this definition.  You can specify multiple terminal names by separating
       them with `|'s.  Use `*' to match all terminals and `vt*' to match  all
       terminals that begin with "vt".

       Each  tweak argument contains one or more termcap defines (separated by
       `:'s) to be inserted at the start of  the  appropriate  termcap  entry,
       enhancing  it  or overriding existing values.  The first tweak modifies
       your terminal's termcap, and contains definitions  that  your  terminal
       uses to perform certain functions.  Specify a null string to leave this
       unchanged (e.g. '').  The second (optional) tweak modifies all the win-
       dow  termcaps,  and  should contain definitions that screen understands
       (see the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" section).

       Some examples:

              termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs screen that all terminals that begin  with  `xterm'  have  firm

              termcap vt100  ""  l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This  leaves  your vt100 termcap alone and adds the function key labels
       to each window's termcap entry.

              termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes a h19 or z19 termcap and turns off auto-margins (am@) and enables
       the  insert  mode (im) and end-insert (ei) capabilities (the `@' in the
       `im' string is after the `=', so it is part of the string).  Having the
       `im'  and  `ei' definitions put into your terminal's termcap will cause
       screen to automatically advertise the  character-insert  capability  in
       each  window's termcap.  Each window will also get the delete-character
       capability (dc) added to its termcap, which screen will translate  into
       a  line-update  for  the  terminal (we're pretending it doesn't support
       character deletion).

       If you would like to fully specify each  window's  termcap  entry,  you
       should  instead  set  the  $SCREENCAP variable prior to running screen.
       See the discussion on the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" in this  manual,  and  the
       termcap(5) man page for more information on termcap definitions.

       time [string]

       Uses  the  message  line to display the time of day, the host name, and
       the load averages over 1, 5, and 15 minutes (if this  is  available  on
       your system).  For window specific information, use "info".

       If a string is specified, it changes the format of the time report like
       it is described in the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a  default
       of "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".

       title [windowtitle]

       Set the name of the current window to windowtitle. If no name is speci-
       fied, screen prompts for one. This command was known as `aka' in previ-
       ous releases.


       Unbind  all the bindings. This can be useful when screen is used solely
       for its detaching abilities, such as when letting a console application
       run  as a daemon. If, for some reason, it is necessary to bind commands
       after this, use 'screen -X'.

       unsetenv var

       Unset an environment variable.

       utf8 [on|off [on|off]]

       Per  default,  vbell  is  off, thus the audible bell is used.  See also

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets the visual bell message. message is printed to the status line  if
       the  window  receives  a bell character (^G), vbell is set to "on", but
       the terminal does not support a visual bell.  The  default  message  is
       "Wuff, Wuff!!".  Without a parameter, the current message is shown.

       vbellwait sec

       Define  a  delay  in seconds after each display of screen's visual bell
       message. The default is 1 second.

       verbose [on|off]

       If verbose is switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever a  win-
       dow  is  created  (or  resurrected  from zombie state). Default is off.
       Without a parameter, the current setting is shown.


       Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.

       wall message

       Write a message to all displays. The message will appear in the  termi-
       nal's status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle  the  window  width between 80 and 132 columns or set it to cols
       columns if an argument is specified.  This requires a capable  terminal
       and  the  termcap entries "Z0" and "Z1".  See the "termcap" command for
       more information. You can also specify a new  height  if  you  want  to
       change  both  values.   The -w option tells screen to leave the display
       size unchanged and just set the window size, -d vice versa.

       windowlist [-b] [-m] [-g]
       windowlist string [string]
       windowlist title [title]

       Display all windows in a table for visual window selection.  If  screen
       was  in a window group, screen will back out of the group and then dis-
       play the windows in that group.  If the -b option is given, screen will
       switch to the blank window before presenting the list, so that the cur-
       rent window is also selectable.  The -m option changes the order of the
       windows,  instead of sorting by window numbers screen uses its internal
       most-recently-used list.  The -g option will show  the  windows  inside
       any groups in that level and downwards.

         m Toggle MRU.
         g Toggle group nesting.
         a All window view.
         C-h or backspace Back out the group.
         , Switch numbers with the previous window.
         . Switch numbers with the next window.
         K Kill that window.
         space or enter Select that window.

       The table format can be changed with the string and title  option,  the
       title  is displayed as table heading, while the lines are made by using
       the string setting. The default setting is "Num  Name%=Flags"  for  the
       title and "%3n %t%=%f" for the lines.  See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter
       for more codes (e.g. color settings).

       "Windowlist" needs a region size of at least 10 characters wide  and  6
       characters high in order to display.


       Uses  the message line to display a list of all the windows.  Each win-
       dow is listed by number with the name of process that has been  started
       in  the window (or its title); the current window is marked with a `*';
       the previous window is marked with a `-';  all  the  windows  that  are
       "logged  in"  are  marked  with  a  `$';  a  background window that has
       received a bell is marked with a `!'; a background window that is being
       monitored  and  has  had activity occur is marked with an `@'; a window
       which has output logging turned on is marked with `(L)'; windows  occu-
       pied  by  other  users are marked with `&'; windows in the zombie state
       are marked with `Z'.  If this list is too long to fit on the terminal's
       status line only the portion around the current window is displayed.

       wrap [on|off]

       Sets  the  line-wrap setting for the current window.  When line-wrap is
       on, the second consecutive printable character output at the last  col-
       umn  of  a  line  will  wrap to the start of the following line.  As an
       added feature, backspace (^H) will also wrap through the left margin to
       the  previous line.  Default is `on'. Without any options, the state of
       wrap is toggled.

       writebuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Writes the contents of the paste buffer to the specified file,  or  the
       public accessible screen-exchange file if no filename is given. This is
       thought of as a primitive means of communication between  screen  users
       on  the  same  host.  If  an  encoding is specified the paste buffer is
       recoded on the fly to match the encoding.  The filename can be set with
       the bufferfile command and defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".

       writelock [on|off|auto]

       zmodem [off|auto|catch|pass]
       zmodem sendcmd [string]
       zmodem recvcmd [string]

       Define  zmodem  support  for  screen.  Screen understands two different
       modes when it detects a zmodem request: "pass"  and  "catch".   If  the
       mode is set to "pass", screen will relay all data to the attacher until
       the end of the transmission is reached.  In "catch" mode screen acts as
       a  zmodem  endpoint and starts the corresponding rz/sz commands. If the
       mode is set to "auto", screen will use "catch" if the window is  a  tty
       (e.g. a serial line), otherwise it will use "pass".
       You can define the templates screen uses in "catch" mode via the second
       and the third form.
       Note also that this is an experimental feature.

       zombie [keys[onerror]]
       defzombie [keys]

       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon  as
       the  windows  process  (e.g. shell) exits. When a string of two keys is
       specified to the zombie command, `dead'  windows  will  remain  in  the
       list.   The  kill command may be used to remove such a window. Pressing
       the first key in the dead window has the same effect. When pressing the
       second  key,  screen  will attempt to resurrect the window. The process
       that was initially running in the window will be launched again.  Call-
       ing  zombie without parameters will clear the zombie setting, thus mak-
       ing windows disappear when their process exits.

       As the zombie-setting is manipulated globally  for  all  windows,  this
       command  should  only  be called defzombie. Until we need this as a per
       window setting, the commands zombie and defzombie are synonymous.

       Optionally you can put the word "onerror" after  the  keys.  This  will
       cause  screen to monitor exit status of the process running in the win-
       dow. If it exits normally ('0'), the window disappears. Any other  exit
       value causes the window to become a zombie.


       Screen  displays informational messages and other diagnostics in a mes-
       sage line.  While this line is distributed to appear at the  bottom  of
       the screen, it can be defined to appear at the top of the screen during
       compilation.  If your terminal has a status line defined in  its  term-
       cap, screen will use this for displaying its messages, otherwise a line
       of the current screen will be temporarily overwritten and  output  will
       be  momentarily  interrupted. The message line is automatically removed
       after a few seconds delay, but it can also be removed early (on  termi-
       nals without a status line) by beginning to type.

       The  message line facility can be used by an application running in the
       current window by means of the ANSI Privacy message  control  sequence.
       used efficiently as a console multiplexer with 100 or more windows.

       o  The  normal  window  contains  a  shell (default, if no parameter is
          given) or any other system command that could  be  executed  from  a
          shell (e.g.  slogin, etc...)

       o  If a tty (character special device) name (e.g. "/dev/ttya") is spec-
          ified as the first parameter, then the window is directly  connected
          to  this  device.   This  window  type  is  similar to "screen cu -l
          /dev/ttya".  Read and write access is required on the  device  node,
          an  exclusive  open  is attempted on the node to mark the connection
          line as busy.  An optional parameter  is  allowed  consisting  of  a
          comma separated list of flags in the notation used by stty(1):

                 Usually  300,  1200, 9600 or 19200. This affects transmission
                 as well as receive speed.

          cs8 or cs7
                 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

          ixon or -ixon
                 Enables (or disables) software  flow-control  (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q)
                 for sending data.

          ixoff or -ixoff
                 Enables  (or  disables)  software  flow-control for receiving

          istrip or -istrip
                 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received byte.

          You may want to specify as many  of  these  options  as  applicable.
          Unspecified options cause the terminal driver to make up the parame-
          ter values of the connection.  These values are system dependent and
          may be in defaults or values saved from a previous connection.

          For  tty  windows,  the info command shows some of the modem control
          lines in the status line. These may  include  `RTS',  `CTS',  'DTR',
          `DSR',  `CD'  and more.  This depends on the available ioctl()'s and
          system header files as well as the on the physical  capabilities  of
          the  serial  board.   Signals  that  are logical low (inactive) have
          their name preceded by an exclamation mark (!), otherwise the signal
          is logical high (active).  Signals not supported by the hardware but
          available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.

          When the CLOCAL status bit is true, the whole set of  modem  signals
          is  placed inside curly braces ({ and }).  When the CRTSCTS or TIOC-
          SOFTCAR bit is set, the signals `CTS' or `CD' are shown in parenthe-
          sis, respectively.

          b      BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

          e      ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

          c      SGA.  The  connection  is in `character mode' (default: `line

          t      TTYPE. The terminal type has been  requested  by  the  remote
                 host.   Screen sends the name "screen" unless instructed oth-
                 erwise (see also the command `term').

          w      NAWS. The remote site is notified about window size changes.

          f      LFLOW. The remote host will send  flow  control  information.
                 (Ignored at the moment.)

          Additional  flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC, TSPEED and

          For telnet windows, the command break  sends  the  telnet  code  IAC
          BREAK (decimal 243) to the remote host.

          This  window  type is only available if screen was compiled with the
          BUILTIN_TELNET option defined.


       Screen provides an escape mechanism to insert information like the cur-
       rent time into messages or file names. The escape character is '%' with
       one exception: inside of a window's  hardstatus  '^%'  ('^E')  is  used

       Here is the full list of supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       a      either 'am' or 'pm'

       A      either 'AM' or 'PM'

       c      current time HH:MM in 24h format

       C      current time HH:MM in 12h format

       d      day number

       D      weekday name

       f      flags  of  the window, see "windows" for meanings of the various
       n      window number

       P      sets %? to true if the current region is in copy/paste mode

       S      session name

       s      seconds

       t      window title

       u      all other users on this window

       w      all window numbers and names. With '-' qualifier: up to the cur-
              rent  window; with '+' qualifier: starting with the window after
              the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       y      last two digits of the year number

       Y      full year number

       ?      the part to the next '%?' is displayed  only  if  a  '%'  escape
              inside the part expands to a non-empty string

       :      else part of '%?'

       =      pad  the  string to the display's width (like TeX's hfill). If a
              number is specified, pad  to  the  percentage  of  the  window's
              width.   A  '0'  qualifier  tells  screen to treat the number as
              absolute position.  You can specify to pad relative to the  last
              absolute  pad position by adding a '+' qualifier or to pad rela-
              tive to the right margin by using '-'. The padding truncates the
              string  if  the specified position lies before the current posi-
              tion. Add the 'L' qualifier to change this.

       <      same as '%=' but just do truncation, do not fill with spaces

       >      mark the current text position for  the  next  truncation.  When
              screen  needs  to do truncation, it tries to do it in a way that
              the marked position gets moved to the  specified  percentage  of
              the  output  area.  (The  area starts from the last absolute pad
              position and ends with the position specified by the  truncation
              operator.)  The 'L' qualifier tells screen to mark the truncated
              parts with '...'.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the next "}"

       `      Substitute with the output of a 'backtick' command.  The  length
              qualifier is misused to identify one of the commands.

       The  'c'  and 'C' escape may be qualified with a '0' to make screen use
       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number or  a
       combination of the following letters:

       d      dim
       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      standout
       B      blinking

       Colors are coded either as a hexadecimal number or two letters specify-
       ing the desired background and foreground color (in  that  order).  The
       following colors are known:

       k      black
       r      red
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       d      default color
       .      leave color unchanged

       The  capitalized  versions of the letter specify bright colors. You can
       also use the pseudo-color 'i' to set just the brightness and leave  the
       color unchanged.
       A  one digit/letter color description is treated as foreground or back-
       ground color dependent on the current attributes: if  reverse  mode  is
       set,  the  background color is changed instead of the foreground color.
       If you don't like this, prefix the color with a ".". If  you  want  the
       same  behavior for two-letter color descriptions, also prefix them with
       a ".".
       As a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and colors that  were
       set before the last change was made (i.e., pops one level of the color-
       change stack).


       "G"    set color to bright green

       "+b r" use bold red

       "= yd" clear all attributes, write in default  color  on  yellow  back-

       with the XON and XOFF characters (and perhaps the interrupt character).
       When flow-control is turned off, screen ignores the XON and XOFF  char-
       acters,  which  allows  the user to send them to the current program by
       simply typing them (useful for the emacs editor,  for  instance).   The
       trade-off  is  that it will take longer for output from a "normal" pro-
       gram to pause in response to an XOFF.  With flow-control turned on, XON
       and  XOFF  characters  are  used to immediately pause the output of the
       current window.  You can still send these  characters  to  the  current
       program, but you must use the appropriate two-character screen commands
       (typically "C-a q" (xon) and "C-a s" (xoff)).   The  xon/xoff  commands
       are  also useful for typing C-s and C-q past a terminal that intercepts
       these characters.

       Each window has an initial flow-control value set with  either  the  -f
       option  or the "defflow" .screenrc command. Per default the windows are
       set to automatic flow-switching.  It can then be  toggled  between  the
       three states 'fixed on', 'fixed off' and 'automatic' interactively with
       the "flow" command bound to "C-a f".

       The automatic flow-switching mode deals with  flow  control  using  the
       TIOCPKT  mode  (like "rlogin" does). If the tty driver does not support
       TIOCPKT, screen tries to find out the right mode based on  the  current
       setting of the application keypad - when it is enabled, flow-control is
       turned off and visa versa.  Of course, you can still  manipulate  flow-
       control manually when needed.

       If  you're running with flow-control enabled and find that pressing the
       interrupt key (usually  C-c)  does  not  interrupt  the  display  until
       another 6-8 lines have scrolled by, try running screen with the "inter-
       rupt" option (add the "interrupt" flag to the "flow"  command  in  your
       .screenrc,  or use the -i command-line option).  This causes the output
       that screen has accumulated from the interrupted program to be flushed.
       One  disadvantage  is  that  the virtual terminal's memory contains the
       non-flushed version of the output, which in rare cases can cause  minor
       inaccuracies  in  the  output.   For example, if you switch screens and
       return, or update the screen with "C-a l" you would see the version  of
       the  output  you would have gotten without "interrupt" being on.  Also,
       you might need to turn off flow-control (or use auto-flow mode to  turn
       it  off  automatically) when running a program that expects you to type
       the interrupt character as input, as it is possible  to  interrupt  the
       output of the virtual terminal to your physical terminal when flow-con-
       trol is enabled.  If this happens, a simple refresh of the screen  with
       "C-a  l" will restore it.  Give each mode a try, and use whichever mode
       you find more comfortable.

TITLES (naming windows)

       You can customize each window's name in the window display (viewed with
       the "windows" command (C-a w)) by setting it with one of the title com-
       mands.  Normally the name displayed is the actual command name  of  the
       program created in the window.  However, it is sometimes useful to dis-
       ting the window's name to "search|name" and arranging to  have  a  null
       title escape-sequence output as a part of your prompt.  The search por-
       tion specifies an end-of-prompt search string, while the  name  portion
       specifies the default shell name for the window.  If the name ends in a
       `:' screen will add what it believes to be the current command  running
       in  the window to the end of the window's shell name (e.g. "name:cmd").
       Otherwise the current command name supersedes the shell name  while  it
       is running.

       Here's  how  it  works:   you must modify your shell prompt to output a
       null title-escape-sequence (<esc>k<esc>\) as a  part  of  your  prompt.
       The  last part of your prompt must be the same as the string you speci-
       fied for the search portion of the title.  Once this is set up,  screen
       will  use  the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous command name
       and get ready for the next command.  Then, when a newline  is  received
       from  the shell, a search is made for the end of the prompt.  If found,
       it will grab the first word after the matched string and use it as  the
       command  name.  If the command name begins with either '!', '%', or '^'
       screen will use the first word on the  following  line  (if  found)  in
       preference  to  the  just-found  name.  This helps csh users get better
       command names when using job control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

              screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding this line to your .screenrc would start a nice-d version of  the
       "top" command in window 2 named "top" rather than "nice".

                   shelltitle '> |csh'
                   screen 1

       These  commands  would  start  a  shell with the given shelltitle.  The
       title specified is an auto-title that would expect the prompt  and  the
       typed command to look something like the following:

              /usr/joe/src/dir> trn

       (it  looks  after  the  '>  ' for the command name).  The window status
       would show the name "trn" while the command was running, and revert  to
       "csh" upon completion.

              bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having  this command in your .screenrc would bind the key sequence "C-a
       R" to the "su" command and give it an auto-title name of "root:".   For
       this auto-title to work, the screen could look something like this:

                   % !em
                   emacs file.c

       Here  the user typed the csh history command "!em" which ran the previ-
       your prompt is that some shells (like the csh) count all  the  non-con-
       trol  characters  as  part  of the prompt's length.  If these invisible
       characters aren't a multiple of 8 then  backspacing  over  a  tab  will
       result in an incorrect display.  One way to get around this is to use a
       prompt like this:

              set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The escape-sequence "<esc>[0000m" not  only  normalizes  the  character
       attributes, but all the zeros round the length of the invisible charac-
       ters up to 8.  Bash  users  will  probably  want  to  echo  the  escape
       sequence in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

              PROMPT_COMMAND='printf "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used "134" to output a `\' because of a bug in bash v1.04).


       Each  window  in  a screen session emulates a VT100 terminal, with some
       extra functions added. The VT100 emulator is hard-coded, no other  ter-
       minal types can be emulated.
       Usually  screen  tries to emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI standard as
       possible. But if your terminal lacks certain capabilities,  the  emula-
       tion  may not be complete. In these cases screen has to tell the appli-
       cations that some of the features are missing. This is  no  problem  on
       machines using termcap, because screen can use the $TERMCAP variable to
       customize the standard screen termcap.

       But if you do a rlogin on another machine or your machine supports only
       terminfo  this  method  fails.  Because of this, screen offers a way to
       deal with these cases.  Here is how it works:

       When screen tries to figure out a terminal name for  itself,  it  first
       looks  for an entry named "screen.<term>", where <term> is the contents
       of your $TERM variable.  If no such entry exists, screen tries "screen"
       (or  "screen-w"  if  the terminal is wide (132 cols or more)).  If even
       this entry cannot be found, "vt100" is used as a substitute.

       The idea is that if you have a terminal which doesn't support an impor-
       tant  feature  (e.g.  delete  char or clear to EOS) you can build a new
       termcap/terminfo entry for screen (named "screen.<dumbterm>") in  which
       this  capability  has been disabled. If this entry is installed on your
       machines you are able to do a rlogin and still keep the  correct  term-
       cap/terminfo  entry.  The terminal name is put in the $TERM variable of
       all new windows.  Screen also sets the $TERMCAP variable reflecting the
       capabilities of the virtual terminal emulated. Notice that, however, on
       machines using the terminfo database this variable has no effect.  Fur-
       thermore, the variable $WINDOW is set to the window number of each win-

       full terminal definition, or a filename  where  the  terminal  "screen"
       (and/or "screen-w") is defined.

       Note  that screen honors the "terminfo" .screenrc command if the system
       uses the terminfo database rather than termcap.

       When the boolean `G0' capability is present in the  termcap  entry  for
       the terminal on which screen has been called, the terminal emulation of
       screen supports multiple character sets.  This allows an application to
       make use of, for instance, the VT100 graphics character set or national
       character sets.  The following control functions from ISO 2022 are sup-
       ported:  lock  shift  G0  (SI), lock shift G1 (SO), lock shift G2, lock
       shift G3, single shift G2, and single shift G3.  When a virtual  termi-
       nal  is  created  or reset, the ASCII character set is designated as G0
       through G3.  When the `G0' capability is present, screen evaluates  the
       capabilities  `S0', `E0', and `C0' if present. `S0' is the sequence the
       terminal uses to enable and start the  graphics  character  set  rather
       than  SI.   `E0'  is the corresponding replacement for SO. `C0' gives a
       character by character translation string that  is  used  during  semi-
       graphics  mode.  This string is built like the `acsc' terminfo capabil-

       When the `po' and `pf' capabilities are present in the terminal's term-
       cap  entry,  applications running in a screen window can send output to
       the printer port of the terminal.  This allows a user to have an appli-
       cation  in one window sending output to a printer connected to the ter-
       minal, while all other windows are still active (the  printer  port  is
       enabled  and  disabled  again  for  each  chunk of output).  As a side-
       effect, programs running in different windows can send  output  to  the
       printer  simultaneously.   Data sent to the printer is not displayed in
       the window.  The info command displays a line starting `PRIN' while the
       printer is active.

       Screen  maintains  a hardstatus line for every window. If a window gets
       selected, the display's hardstatus will be updated to  match  the  win-
       dow's  hardstatus  line. If the display has no hardstatus the line will
       be displayed as a standard screen message.  The hardstatus line can  be
       changed    with   the   ANSI   Application   Program   Command   (APC):
       "ESC_<string>ESC\". As a  convenience  for  xterm  users  the  sequence
       "ESC]0..2;<string>^G" is also accepted.

       Some  capabilities  are only put into the $TERMCAP variable of the vir-
       tual terminal if they can be efficiently implemented  by  the  physical
       terminal.  For instance, `dl' (delete line) is only put into the $TERM-
       CAP variable if the terminal supports  either  delete  line  itself  or
       scrolling  regions. Note that this may provoke confusion, when the ses-
       sion is reattached on a different terminal, as the  value  of  $TERMCAP
       cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The  "alternate  screen" capability is not enabled by default.  Set the
       altscreen .screenrc command to enable it.

       ESC 7                 (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8                 (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s                (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u                (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c                      Reset to Initial State

       ESC g                      Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p                   Cursor Visibility (97801)

           Pn = 6                 Invisible

                7                 Visible

       ESC =                 (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >                 (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8               (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \                 (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^                 (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !                      Global Message String (Message Line)

       ESC k                      A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P                 (A)  Device Control  String.   Outputs  a  string
                                  directly to the host terminal without inter-

       ESC _                 (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string ^G   (A)  Operating System Command (Hardstatus,  xterm
                                  title hack)

       ESC ] 83 ; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute  screen  command. This only works if
                                  multi-user support is compiled into  screen.
                                  The  pseudo-user ":window:" is used to check
                                  the access control list. Use  "addacl  :win-
                                  dow:  -rwx  #?"  to  create  a  user with no
                                  rights and allow only the needed commands.

       Control-N             (A)  Lock Shift G1 (SO)

       Control-O             (A)  Lock Shift G0 (SI)

       ESC + Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn H            Direct Cursor Addressing

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn f            same as above

       ESC [ Pn J                 Erase in Display

             Pn = None or 0       From Cursor to End of Screen

                  1               From Beginning of Screen to Cursor

                  2               Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn K                 Erase in Line

             Pn = None or 0       From Cursor to End of Line

                  1               From Beginning of Line to Cursor

                  2               Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn X                 Erase character

       ESC [ Pn A                 Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn B                 Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn C                 Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn D                 Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn E                 Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn F                 Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn G                 Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn `                 same as above

       ESC [ Pn d                 Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps m        Select Graphic Rendition

             Ps = None or 0       Default Rendition

                  1               Bold

                  2          (A)  Faint

                  3          (A)  Standout Mode (ANSI: Italicized)

                  27         (A)  Positive Image

                  30         (A)  Foreground Black

                  31         (A)  Foreground Red

                  32         (A)  Foreground Green

                  33         (A)  Foreground Yellow

                  34         (A)  Foreground Blue

                  35         (A)  Foreground Magenta

                  36         (A)  Foreground Cyan

                  37         (A)  Foreground White

                  39         (A)  Foreground Default

                  40         (A)  Background Black


                  49         (A)  Background Default

       ESC [ Pn g                 Tab Clear

             Pn = None or 0       Clear Tab at Current Position

                  3               Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn r       (V)  Set Scrolling Region

       ESC [ Pn I            (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn Z            (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn L            (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn M            (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn @            (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn P            (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn S                 Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn T                 Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn ^                 same as above

                  ?5         (V)  Reverse Video

                  ?6         (V)  Origin Mode

                  ?7         (V)  Wrap Mode

                  ?9              X10 mouse tracking

                  ?25        (V)  Visible Cursor

                  ?47             Alternate Screen (old xterm code)

                  ?1000      (V)  VT200 mouse tracking

                  ?1047           Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

                  ?1049           Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

       ESC [ 5 i             (A)  Start relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i             (A)  Stop relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t        Resize the window to  `Ph'  lines  and  `Pw'
                                  columns (SunView special)

       ESC [ c                    Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x                    Send Terminal Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c                  Send   VT220   Secondary  Device  Attributes

       ESC [ 6 n                  Send Cursor Position Report


       In order to do a full VT100 emulation  screen  has  to  detect  that  a
       sequence  of characters in the input stream was generated by a keypress
       on the user's keyboard and insert  the  VT100  style  escape  sequence.
       Screen  has  a very flexible way of doing this by making it possible to
       map arbitrary commands on arbitrary sequences of characters. For  stan-
       dard  VT100  emulation  the  command will always insert a string in the
       input buffer of the window (see also command stuff in the  command  ta-
       ble).  Because the sequences generated by a keypress can change after a
       reattach from a different terminal type, it is possible  to  bind  com-
       mands  to the termcap name of the keys.  Screen will insert the correct
       binding after each  reattach.  See  the  bindkey  command  for  further
       details on the syntax and examples.

       Here  is the table of the default key bindings. (A) means that the com-
       mand is executed if the keyboard is switched into application mode.
       Function key 3        k3          stuff \033OR
       Function key 4        k4          stuff \033OS
       Function key 5        k5          stuff \033[15~
       Function key 6        k6          stuff \033[17~
       Function key 7        k7          stuff \033[18~
       Function key 8        k8          stuff \033[19~
       Function key 9        k9          stuff \033[20~
       Function key 10       k;          stuff \033[21~
       Function key 11       F1          stuff \033[23~
       Function key 12       F2          stuff \033[24~
       Home                  kh          stuff \033[1~
       End                   kH          stuff \033[4~
       Insert                kI          stuff \033[2~
       Delete                kD          stuff \033[3~
       Page up               kP          stuff \033[5~
       Page down             kN          stuff \033[6~
       Keypad 0              f0          stuff 0
                                         stuff \033Op    (A)
       Keypad 1              f1          stuff 1
                                         stuff \033Oq    (A)
       Keypad 2              f2          stuff 2
                                         stuff \033Or    (A)
       Keypad 3              f3          stuff 3
                                         stuff \033Os    (A)
       Keypad 4              f4          stuff 4
                                         stuff \033Ot    (A)
       Keypad 5              f5          stuff 5
                                         stuff \033Ou    (A)
       Keypad 6              f6          stuff 6
                                         stuff \033Ov    (A)
       Keypad 7              f7          stuff 7
                                         stuff \033Ow    (A)
       Keypad 8              f8          stuff 8
                                         stuff \033Ox    (A)
       Keypad 9              f9          stuff 9
                                         stuff \033Oy    (A)
       Keypad +              f+          stuff +
                                         stuff \033Ok    (A)
       Keypad -              f-          stuff -
                                         stuff \033Om    (A)
       Keypad *              f*          stuff *
                                         stuff \033Oj    (A)
       Keypad /              f/          stuff /
                                         stuff \033Oo    (A)
       Keypad =              fq          stuff =
                                         stuff \033OX    (A)
       Keypad .              f.          stuff .
                                         stuff \033On    (A)
       Keypad ,              f,          stuff ,
                                         stuff \033Ol    (A)
       Keypad enter          fe          stuff \015
                                         stuff \033OM    (A)

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132 columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize  display. This capability has the desired width and
                    height as arguments. SunView(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.

       NF   (bool)  Terminal doesn't need flow control. Send ^S and ^Q  direct
                    to  the  application.  Same as 'flow off'. The opposite of
                    this capability is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection sequences.

       S0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' to the specified charset.  Default  is

       E0   (str)   Switch  charset  'G0' back to standard charset. Default is

       C0   (str)   Use the string as a conversion table for font '0'. See the
                    'ac' capability for more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn  on  autonuke.  See  the  'autonuke' command for more

       OL   (num)   Set the output buffer limit. See the  'obuflimit'  command
                    for more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set  the encoding of the terminal. See the 'encoding' com-
                    mand for valid encodings.

       AF   (str)   Change character foreground color in an ANSI conform  way.
                    This  capability  will  almost  always be set to '\E[3%dm'
                    ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background color.

       AX   (bool)  Does understand ANSI set default  fg/bg  color  (\E[39m  /

       XC   (str)   Describe  a translation of characters to strings depending
                    on the current font. More details follow in the next  sec-

       XT   (bool)  Terminal  understands  special xterm sequences (OSC, mouse

           <charset-mapping> := <designator><template>{,<mapping>}
           <mapping> := <char-to-be-mapped><template-arg>

       The things in braces may be repeated any number of times.

       A <charset-mapping> tells screen how to map characters in font  <desig-
       nator>  ('B':  Ascii,  'A':  UK,  'K': German, etc.)  to strings. Every
       <mapping> describes to what string a single character  will  be  trans-
       lated. A template mechanism is used, as most of the time the codes have
       a lot in common (for example strings to  switch  to  and  from  another
       charset).  Each  occurrence  of '%' in <template> gets substituted with
       the <template-arg> specified  together  with  the  character.  If  your
       strings  are  not  similar at all, then use '%' as a template and place
       the full string in <template-arg>. A quoting  mechanism  was  added  to
       make  it  possible to use a real '%'. The '\' character quotes the spe-
       cial characters '\', '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

           termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This tells screen how to translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B')  upper  case
       umlaut characters on a hp700 terminal that has a German charset. '\304'
       gets translated to '\E(K[\E(B' and so on.  Note  that  this  line  gets
       parsed  *three* times before the internal lookup table is built, there-
       fore a lot of quoting is needed to create a single '\'.

       Another extension was added to  allow  more  emulation:  If  a  mapping
       translates the unquoted '%' char, it will be sent to the terminal when-
       ever screen switches to the corresponding <designator>. In this special
       case  the template is assumed to be just '%' because the charset switch
       sequence and the character mappings normally haven't much in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

           termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here, a part of the German ('K') charset is emulated on an  xterm.   If
       screen  has  to  change  to the 'K' charset, '\E(B' will be sent to the
       terminal, i.e. the ASCII charset is used instead. The template is  just
       '%',  so  the mapping is straightforward: '[' to '\304', '\' to '\326',
       and ']' to '\334'.


       COLUMNS        Number of columns on  the  terminal  (overrides  termcap
       HOME           Directory in which to look for .screenrc.
       LINES          Number  of  lines  on  the  terminal  (overrides termcap


       .../screen-4.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc Examples  in  the screen distribution
                                         package for private and  global  ini-
                                         tialization files.
       /etc/screenrc                     screen initialization commands
       $HOME/.screenrc                   Read in after /etc/screenrc
       /local/screens/S-<login>          Socket directories (default)
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>        Alternate socket directories.
       <socket directory>/.termcap       Written by the "termcap" output func-
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange  or
       /tmp/screen-exchange              screen  `interprocess   communication
       hardcopy.[0-9]                    Screen images created by the hardcopy
       screenlog.[0-9]                   Output log files created by  the  log
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*             or
       /etc/termcap                      Terminal capability databases
       /etc/utmp                         Login records
       $LOCKPRG                          Program that locks a terminal.


       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1)


       Originally  created by Oliver Laumann, this latest version was produced
       by Juergen Weigert, Michael Schroeder, Micah  Cowan  and  Sadrul  Habib


       Copyright (c) 2010
            Juergen Weigert (jnweiger@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de)
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury (sadrul@users.sourceforge.net)
       Copyright (c) 2008, 2009
            Juergen Weigert (jnweiger@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de)
            Michael Schroeder (mlschroe@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de)
            Micah Cowan (micah@cowan.name)
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury (sadrul@users.sourceforge.net)
       Copyright (C) 1993-2003
            Juergen Weigert (jnweiger@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de)
            Michael Schroeder (mlschroe@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de)
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published  by  the
       Free  Software  Foundation;  either  version 3, or (at your option) any
       Wayne Davison (davison@borland.com),
       Patrick Wolfe (pat@kai.com, kailand!pat),
       Bart Schaefer (schaefer@cse.ogi.edu),
       Nathan Glasser (nathan@brokaw.lcs.mit.edu),
       Larry W. Virden (lvirden@cas.org),
       Howard Chu (hyc@hanauma.jpl.nasa.gov),
       Tim MacKenzie (tym@dibbler.cs.monash.edu.au),
       Markku Jarvinen (mta@{cc,cs,ee}.tut.fi),
       Marc Boucher (marc@CAM.ORG),
       Doug Siebert (dsiebert@isca.uiowa.edu),
       Ken Stillson (stillson@tsfsrv.mitre.org),
       Ian Frechett (frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU),
       Brian Koehmstedt (bpk@gnu.ai.mit.edu),
       Don Smith (djs6015@ultb.isc.rit.edu),
       Frank van der Linden (vdlinden@fwi.uva.nl),
       Martin Schweikert (schweik@cpp.ob.open.de),
       David Vrona (dave@sashimi.lcu.com),
       E. Tye McQueen (tye%spillman.UUCP@uunet.uu.net),
       Matthew Green (mrg@eterna.com.au),
       Christopher Williams (cgw@pobox.com),
       Matt Mosley (mattm@access.digex.net),
       Gregory Neil Shapiro (gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU),
       Johannes Zellner (johannes@zellner.org),
       Pablo Averbuj (pablo@averbuj.com).


       This is version 4.1.0. Its roots are a merge of a custom version 2.3PR7
       by  Wayne  Davison and several enhancements to Oliver Laumann's version
       2.0. Note that all versions numbered 2.x are copyright by  Oliver  Lau-


       The  latest official release of screen available via anonymous ftp from
       gnudist.gnu.org, nic.funet.fi or any other GNU distribution  site.  The
       home site of screen is ftp.uni-erlangen.de, in the directory pub/utili-
       ties/screen. The subdirectory `private' contains the latest beta  test-
       ing  release.  If  you  want  to help, send a note to screen@uni-erlan-


       o  `dm' (delete mode) and `xs' are  not  handled  correctly  (they  are
          ignored). `xn' is treated as a magic-margin indicator.

       o  Screen has no clue about double-high or double-wide characters.  But
          this is the only area where vttest is allowed to fail.

       o  It is not possible to change the environment variable $TERMCAP  when
          reattaching under a different terminal type.

       o  The  support of terminfo based systems is very limited. Adding extra
          capabilities to $TERMCAP may not have any effects.

       o  When the modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically detach
          (or quit) unless the device driver is configured to  send  a  HANGUP
          signal.   To  detach  a screen session use the -D or -d command line

       o  If a password is set, the command  line  options  -d  and  -D  still
          detach a session without asking.

       o  Both  "breaktype"  and  "defbreaktype"  change  the break generating
          method used by all terminal devices. The first should change a  win-
          dow  specific  setting,  where  the  latter  should  change only the
          default for new windows.

       o  When attaching to a multiuser session, the user's .screenrc file  is
          not  sourced.  Each  user's personal settings have to be included in
          the .screenrc file from which the session is booted, or have  to  be
          changed manually.

       o  A weird imagination is most useful to gain full advantage of all the

       o  Send bug-reports, fixes, enhancements, t-shirts, money, beer & pizza
          to screen@uni-erlangen.de.

4th Berkeley Distribution Aug 2003 SCREEN(1)

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