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# rsync




## SYNOPSIS

       Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

Access via remote shell:
Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

Access via rsync daemon:
Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files



## DESCRIPTION

       Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file  copying  tool.   It
can  copy  locally,  to/from  another  host  over  any remote shell, or
to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a  large  number  of  options
that  control  every  aspect  of  its behavior and permit very flexible
specification of the set of files to be copied.  It is famous  for  its
delta-transfer  algorithm,  which  reduces the amount of data sent over
the network by sending only the differences between  the  source  files
and  the  existing  files in the destination.  Rsync is widely used for
backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

Rsync finds files that need to be transferred  using  a  "quick  check"
algorithm  (by  default) that looks for files that have changed in size
or  in  last-modified  time.   Any  changes  in  the  other   preserved
attributes  (as  requested by options) are made on the destination file
directly when the quick check indicates that the file's data  does  not
need to be updated.

Some of the additional features of rsync are:

o      support  for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permis-
sions

o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files  that  CVS  would
ignore

o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

o      does not require super-user privileges

o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

o      support  for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for
double colon (::) separator after a  host  specification,  OR  when  an
VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this  latter
rule).

As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a desti-
nation, the files are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote

Rsync  refers  to the local side as the "client" and the remote side as
the "server".  Don't confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a  daemon
is  always  a  server,  but  a  server  can  be  either  a  daemon or a
remote-shell spawned process.



## SETUP

       See the file README for installation instructions.

Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that  you  can  access
via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync  uses  ssh
for  its  communications, but it may have been configured to use a dif-
ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the  -e
command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

Note  that  rsync  must be installed on both the source and destination
machines.



## USAGE

       You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must  specify  a  source
and a destination, one of which may be remote.

Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

rsync -t *.c foo:src/

This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
directory to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of the  files
already  exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-update proto-
col is used to update the file by sending only the differences  in  the
data.   Note  that  the expansion of wildcards on the commandline (*.c)
into a list of files is handled by the shell before it runs  rsync  and
not  by  rsync  itself  (exactly the same as all other posix-style pro-
grams).

rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

attributes  of the containing directory are transferred to the contain-
ing directory on the destination.  In other words, each of the  follow-
ing  commands copies the files in the same way, including their setting
of the attributes of /dest/foo:

rsync -av /src/foo /dest
rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

Note also that host and module  references  don't  require  a  trailing
slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
of these copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":

rsync -av host: /dest
rsync -av host::module /dest

You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both  the  source  and
destination  don't have a ':' in the name. In this case it behaves like
an improved copy command.

Finally, you can list all the (listable) modules available from a  par-
ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:

rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

See the following section for more details.



       The  syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done by
specifying additional remote-host args in the same style as the  first,
or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all these work:

rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

Older  versions  of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like
these examples:

rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest  rsync,  but
is not as easy to use as the first method.

If  you  need  to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can
either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you'll need to escape
the  whitespace  in  a  way that the remote shell will understand.  For

o      you  either  use  a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when  you  con-
nect.

o      if  you  specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list
of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the speci-
fied files on the remote daemon is provided.

o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

rsync -av host::src /dest

Some  modules  on  the remote daemon may require authentication. If so,
you will receive a password prompt when you connect. You can avoid  the
the password you want to use or using the --password-file option.  This
may be useful when scripting rsync.

WARNING:  On  some  systems  environment  variables  are visible to all
users. On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting  the  envi-
ronment  variable  RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to your
web proxy.  Note that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
connections to port 873.

You  may  also establish a daemon connection using a program as a proxy
by setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the  commands
you  wish  to  run  in place of making a direct socket connection.  The
string may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname  specified
in  the  rsync  command  (so  use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your
string).  For example:

export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
which  forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the targeth-
ost (%H).
"localhost".)

From the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell  con-
nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-dae-
mon transfer, with the only exception being that  you  must  explicitly
set the remote shell program on the command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND
option.  (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment  will  not  turn  on
this functionality.)  For example:

rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
the user@ prefix in front of the  host  is  specifying  the  rsync-user
value  (for  a  module  that requires user-based authentication).  This
means that you must give the '-l user' option to  ssh  when  specifying
the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the
--rsh option:

rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will  be
used to log-in to the "module".



## STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS

       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like
inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
port).  For full information on how to start a daemon  that  will  han-
dling  incoming  socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page --
that is the config file for  the  daemon,  and  it  contains  the  full
details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd con-
figurations).

If you're using one of the remote-shell transports  for  the  transfer,
there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.



## SORTED TRANSFER ORDER

       Rsync  always  sorts the specified filenames into its internal transfer
list.  This handles the merging together of the contents of identically
named directories, makes it easy to remove duplicate filenames, and may
confuse someone when the files are transferred  in  a  different  order
than what was given on the command-line.

If  you  need  a  particular  file  to be transferred prior to another,
either separate the files into different rsync calls, or consider using
--delay-updates  (which  doesn't  affect the sorted transfer order, but
does make the final file-updating phase happen much more rapidly).



## EXAMPLES

       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.
rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
put:
rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
sync: get put

this  allows  me  to  sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the
connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.

I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the com-
mand:

rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

This is launched from cron every few hours.



## OPTIONS SUMMARY

       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer
to the detailed description below for a complete description.

-v, --verbose               increase verbosity
--info=FLAGS            fine-grained informational verbosity
--debug=FLAGS           fine-grained debug verbosity
--msgs2stderr           special output handling for debugging
-q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages
--no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
-c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
-a, --archive               archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
--no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
-r, --recursive             recurse into directories
-R, --relative              use relative path names
--no-implied-dirs       don't send implied dirs with --relative
-b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
--backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
--suffix=SUFFIX         backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
--inplace               update destination files in-place
--append                append data onto shorter files
--append-verify         --append w/old data in file checksum
-d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing
-p, --perms                 preserve permissions
-E, --executability         preserve executability
--chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions
--preallocate           allocate dest files before writing
-n, --dry-run               perform a trial run with no changes made
-W, --whole-file            copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
-x, --one-file-system       don't cross filesystem boundaries
-B, --block-size=SIZE       force a fixed checksum block-size
-e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use
--rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
--existing              skip creating new files on receiver
--ignore-existing       skip updating files that exist on receiver
--remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
--del                   an alias for --delete-during
--delete                delete extraneous files from dest dirs
--delete-before         receiver deletes before xfer, not during
--delete-during         receiver deletes during the transfer
--delete-delay          find deletions during, delete after
--delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not during
--delete-excluded       also delete excluded files from dest dirs
--ignore-missing-args   ignore missing source args without error
--delete-missing-args   delete missing source args from destination
--ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors
--force                 force deletion of dirs even if not empty
--max-delete=NUM        don't delete more than NUM files
--max-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
--min-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
--partial               keep partially transferred files
--partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR
--delay-updates         put all updated files into place at end
-m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from file-list
--numeric-ids           don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
--groupmap=STRING       custom groupname mapping
--timeout=SECONDS       set I/O timeout in seconds
--contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds
-I, --ignore-times          don't skip files that match size and time
--size-only             skip files that match in size
--modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
-T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
-y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file
--compare-dest=DIR      also compare received files relative to DIR
--copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files
-z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer
--compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
--skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
-C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
-f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE
-F                          same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
--exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
--exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
--include=PATTERN       don't exclude files matching PATTERN

-i, --itemize-changes       output a change-summary for all updates
-M, --remote-option=OPTION  send OPTION to the remote side only
--out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
--log-file=FILE         log what we're doing to the specified FILE
--log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
--list-only             list the files instead of copying them
--bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
--write-batch=FILE      write a batched update to FILE
--only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
--protocol=NUM          force an older protocol version to be used
--iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
--checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
-4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
-6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
--version               print version number
(-h) --help                  show this help (see below for -h comment)

Rsync  can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options
are accepted:

--daemon                run as an rsync daemon
--bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
--config=FILE           specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
-M, --dparam=OVERRIDE       override global daemon config parameter
--no-detach             do not detach from the parent
--port=PORT             listen on alternate port number
--log-file=FILE         override the "log file" setting
--log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
--sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
-v, --verbose               increase verbosity
-4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
-6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
-h, --help                  show this help (if used after --daemon)



## OPTIONS

       Rsync accepts both long (double-dash + word) and short  (single-dash  +
letter)  options.  The full list of the available options are described
below.  If an option can be specified in more than one way, the choices
are  comma-separated.   Some  options  only  have a long variant, not a
short.  If the option takes a parameter, the parameter is  only  listed
after  the  long variant, even though it must also be specified for the
short.  When specifying a  parameter,  you  can  either  use  the  form
--option=param  or  replace the '=' with whitespace.  The parameter may
need to be quoted in some manner for it to  survive  the  shell's  com-
mand-line parsing.  Keep in mind that a leading tilde (~) in a filename
is substituted by your shell, so --option=~/foo  will  not  change  the
tilde into your home directory (remove the '=' for that).
you information on what files are  being  skipped  and  slightly
more  information  at  the  end. More than two -v options should
only be used if you are debugging rsync.

In a modern rsync, the -v option is equivalent to the setting of
groups  of  --info  and  --debug options.  You can choose to use
these newer options in addition to, or in place of using  --ver-
bose, as any fine-grained settings override the implied settings
of -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way to ask for help  that
tells  you  exactly what flags are set for each increase in ver-
bosity.

However, do keep in mind that a daemon's "max verbosity" setting
will  limit how high of a level the various individual flags can
be set on the daemon side.  For instance, if the max is 2,  then
any  info  and/or  debug flag that is set to a higher value than
what would be set by -vv will be downgraded to the -vv level  in
the daemon's logging.

--info=FLAGS
This option lets you have fine-grained control over the informa-
tion output you want to see.  An individual  flag  name  may  be
followed  by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that out-
put, 1 being  the  default  output  level,  and  higher  numbers
increasing  the  output  of  that  flag  (for those that support
higher levels).  Use --info=help to see all the  available  flag
names,  what they output, and what flag names are added for each
increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/

Note that --info=name's output is affected by  the  --out-format
and  --itemize-changes (-i) options.  See those options for more
information on what is output and when.

This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the  server
side  might reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one
or more flags needed to be send to the server and the server was
too  old  to  understand  them).   See  also the "max verbosity"
caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

--debug=FLAGS
This option lets you have fine-grained control  over  the  debug
output you want to see.  An individual flag name may be followed
by a level number, with 0 meaning  to  silence  that  output,  1
being  the  default  output level, and higher numbers increasing
the output of that flag (for those that support higher  levels).
Use  --debug=help to see all the available flag names, what they
output, and what flag names are added for each increase  in  the
verbose level.  Some examples:

--msgs2stderr
This  option  changes  rsync  to send all its output directly to
stderr rather than to send messages to the client side  via  the
protocol  (which  normally  outputs  info  messages via stdout).
This is mainly intended for debugging in order to avoid changing
the  data  sent  via the protocol, since the extra protocol data
can change what is being tested.  The option does not affect the
remote  side of a transfer without using --remote-option -- e.g.
-M--msgs2stderr.  Also keep in mind  that  a  daemon  connection
does  not  have  a  stderr  channel to send messages back to the
client side, so if you are doing any  daemon-transfer  debugging
using   this   option,  you  should  start  up  a  daemon  using
--no-detach so that you can see the stderr output on the  daemon
side.

This  option  has  the  side-effect  of making stderr output get
line-buffered so that the merging of the output  of  3  programs
happens in a more readable manner.

-q, --quiet
This  option  decreases  the amount of information you are given
during the transfer, notably  suppressing  information  messages
from  the  remote  server.  This  option is useful when invoking
rsync from cron.

--no-motd
This option affects the information that is output by the client
at  the  start  of  a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the mes-
sage-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also  affects  the  list  of
modules  that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::"
request (due to a limitation in the  rsync  protocol),  so  omit
this  option if you want to request the list of modules from the
daemon.

-I, --ignore-times
Normally rsync will skip any files that  are  already  the  same
size  and  have  the  same  modification timestamp.  This option
turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing all files  to  be
updated.

--size-only
This  modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding files
that need to be transferred, changing it  from  the  default  of
transferring  files  with  either  a  changed  size or a changed
last-modified time to just looking for files that  have  changed
in  size.  This is useful when starting to use rsync after using
another mirroring  system  which  may  not  preserve  timestamps
exactly.

--modify-window
When  comparing  two  timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as
file  that  has a matching size.  Generating the checksums means
that both sides will expend a lot of disk I/O  reading  all  the
data  in  the  files  in  the transfer (and this is prior to any
reading that will be done to transfer changed  files),  so  this
can slow things down significantly.

The  sending  side generates its checksums while it is doing the
file-system scan that builds the list of  the  available  files.
The  receiver  generates  its  checksums when it is scanning for
changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same size
as the corresponding sender's file:  files with either a changed
size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.

Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred  file  was
correctly  reconstructed  on  the  receiving  side by checking a
whole-file checksum that is generated  as  the  file  is  trans-
ferred,  but  that automatic after-the-transfer verification has
nothing to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does  this
file need to be updated?" check.

For  protocol  30  and  beyond  (first  supported in 3.0.0), the
checksum used is MD5.  For older protocols, the checksum used is
MD4.

-a, --archive
This  is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you
want recursion and want to preserve almost everything  (with  -H
being  a  notable  omission).   The  only exception to the above
equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which case  -r
is not implied.

Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multi-
ply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify -H.

--no-OPTION
You may turn off one or more implied options  by  prefixing  the
option  name with "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with a
"no-": only options that are  implied  by  other  options  (e.g.
--no-D,  --no-perms)  or have different defaults in various cir-
cumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io,  --no-dirs).
You  may  specify either the short or the long option name after
the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o
(--owner),  instead  of  converting  -a  into -rlptgD, you could
specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

The order of the options is important:  if  you  specify  --no-r
-a,  the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite of
-a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the  --files-from
option  are  NOT  positional, as it affects the default state of
several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see  the
Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so  these
options  disable the incremental recursion mode.  These include:
--delete-before,   --delete-after,    --prune-empty-dirs,    and
--delay-updates.   Because of this, the default delete mode when
you specify --delete is now --delete-during when  both  ends  of
the  connection are at least 3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during
to request this improved deletion mode  explicitly).   See  also
the  --delete-delay  option  that  is a better choice than using
--delete-after.

Incremental recursion can be disabled using the  --no-inc-recur-
sive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

-R, --relative
Use  relative  paths. This means that the full path names speci-
fied on the command line are sent to the server rather than just
the  last  parts  of  the filenames. This is particularly useful
when you want to send several different directories at the  same
time. For example, if you used this command:

rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

...  this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote

rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would  be  created  on  the
remote machine, preserving its full path.  These extra path ele-
ments are called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo"  and  the
"foo/bar" directories in the above example).

Beginning  with  rsync  3.0.0,  rsync always sends these implied
directories as real directories in the file list, even if a path
element  is really a symlink on the sending side.  This prevents
some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full path of a
file  that you didn't realize had a symlink in its path.  If you
want to duplicate a server-side symlink, include both  the  sym-
link via its path, and referent directory via its real path.  If
you're dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you  may
need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
is sent as implied directories for each path you specify.   With
a  modern  rsync on the sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you
can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like this:

rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

--no-implied-dirs
This  option  affects  the  default  behavior  of the --relative
option.  When it is specified, the  attributes  of  the  implied
directories from the source names are not included in the trans-
fer.  This means that the corresponding  path  elements  on  the
destination  system  are  left  unchanged if they exist, and any
missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
This even allows these implied path elements to have big differ-
ences, such as being a symlink to a directory on  the  receiving
side.

For  instance,  if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told
rsync to transfer  the  file  "path/foo/file",  the  directories
"path"  and  "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If
"path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,  the
receiving  rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it
as a directory, and receive the file  into  the  new  directory.
With    --no-implied-dirs,    the    receiving   rsync   updates
"path/foo/file" using the existing path  elements,  which  means
that  the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way
to  accomplish  this   link   preservation   is   to   use   the
directories in the rest of the transfer).

When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may  need
to use this option if the sending side has a symlink in the path
you request and you wish the implied directories  to  be  trans-
ferred as normal directories.

-b, --backup
With  this  option, preexisting destination files are renamed as
each file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where  the
backup  file  goes  and what (if any) suffix gets appended using
the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

Note  that  if  you  don't   specify   --backup-dir,   (1)   the
--omit-dir-times  option will be implied, and (2) if --delete is
also in effect (without --delete-excluded),  rsync  will  add  a
"protect"  filter-rule  for  the backup suffix to the end of all
your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").  This will prevent pre-
viously  backed-up  files  from being deleted.  Note that if you
are supplying your own filter rules, you may  need  to  manually
insert  your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the
list so that it has a  high  enough  priority  to  be  effective
(e.g.,  if  your rules specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of
'*', the auto-added rule would never be reached).

--backup-dir=DIR
--suffix=SUFFIX
This option allows you to override  the  default  backup  suffix
used with the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is a ~ if
no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty string.

-u, --update
This forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the  destina-
tion  and  have  a  modified  time that is newer than the source
file.  (If an existing destination file has a modification  time
equal  to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are
different.)

Note that this does not affect the copying of dirs, symlinks, or
other  special files.  Also, a difference of file format between
the sender and receiver is always  considered  to  be  important
enough for an update, no matter what date is on the objects.  In
other words, if the source has a directory where the destination
has  a  file,  the  transfer would occur regardless of the time-
stamps.

This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the

--inplace
This  option  changes  how  rsync transfers a file when its data
needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a
new  copy  of  the file and moving it into place when it is com-
plete, rsync instead writes the updated  data  directly  to  the
destination file.

This has several effects:

o      Hard  links are not broken.  This means the new data will
be visible through other hard links  to  the  destination
file.   Moreover, attempts to copy differing source files
onto a multiply-linked destination file will result in  a
"tug  of war" with the destination data changing back and
forth.

o      In-use binaries cannot be updated  (either  the  OS  will
prevent  this from happening, or binaries that attempt to
swap-in their data will misbehave or crash).

o      The file's data will be in an inconsistent  state  during
the transfer and will be left that way if the transfer is
interrupted or if an update fails.

o      A file that rsync cannot  write  to  cannot  be  updated.
While  a  super  user  can update any file, a normal user
needs to be granted write permission for the open of  the

This  option  is  useful  for  transferring  large  files   with
block-based  changes  or appended data, and also on systems that
are disk bound, not network bound.  It  can  also  help  keep  a
copy-on-write filesystem snapshot from diverging the entire con-
tents of a file that only has minor changes.

The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
not  delete  the  file),  but  conflicts  with --partial-dir and
--delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also incom-

--append
This  causes  rsync  to update a file by appending data onto the
end of the file, which  presumes  that  the  data  that  already
exists  on the receiving side is identical with the start of the
file on the sending side.  If a file needs to be transferred and
its  size on the receiver is the same or longer than the size on
the sender, the file is skipped.  This does not  interfere  with
the  updating  of  a file's non-content attributes (e.g. permis-
sions, ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to be trans-
ferred,  nor  does  it  affect  the  updating of any non-regular
files.  Implies --inplace, but does not conflict  with  --sparse
(since it is always extending a file's length).

The  use  of  --append  can be dangerous if you aren't 100% sure
that the files that are longer have only grown by the  appending
of  data onto the end.  You should thus use include/exclude/fil-
ter rules to ensure that such a transfer is only affecting files
that you know to be growing via appended data.

--append-verify
This  works just like the --append option, but the existing data
on the receiving side is included in the full-file checksum ver-
ification  step,  which  will  cause  a file to be resent if the
final verification step fails (rsync uses a normal,  non-append-
ing --inplace transfer for the resend).

Note:  prior  to  rsync  3.0.0,  the --append option worked like
--append-verify, so if you are interacting with an  older  rsync
(or  the  transfer  is using a protocol prior to 30), specifying
either append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

-d, --dirs
Tell the sending  side  to  include  any  directories  that  are
encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory's contents are not
copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a
trailing  slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without this
option or the --recursive option, rsync will skip  all  directo-
ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
one).  If you specify both --dirs and  --recursive,  --recursive
takes precedence.

When  symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to (the
referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions
of  rsync,  this  option also had the side-effect of telling the
ries.   In a modern rsync such as this one, you'll need to spec-
ify --keep-dirlinks (-K) to get this extra behavior.   The  only
exception  is  when sending files to an rsync that is too old to
understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will still have the
side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

This  tells  rsync  to  copy the referent of symbolic links that
point outside the  copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks  are  also
treated  like  ordinary  files,  and  so are any symlinks in the
source path itself when --relative is used.  This option has  no

This  tells  rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point out-
side the copied tree. All absolute symlinks  are  also  ignored.
Using  this option in conjunction with --relative may give unex-
pected results.

This option tells rsync  to  (1)  modify  all  symlinks  on  the
receiving side in a way that makes them unusable but recoverable
(see below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on the sending side that
had  been stored in a munged state.  This is useful if you don't
quite trust the source of the data to not try to slip in a  sym-

The way rsync disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one
with the string "/rsyncd-munged/".  This prevents the links from
being  used as long as that directory does not exist.  When this
option is enabled, rsync will refuse to run if that  path  is  a
directory or a symlink to a directory.

The  option  only affects the client side of the transfer, so if
you  need  it   to   affect   the   server,   specify   it   via
--remote-option.   (Note  that  in  a local transfer, the client
side is the sender.)

This option has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon  config-
support directory of the source code.

This  option  causes  the  sending  side to treat a symlink to a
directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
trick you can use is to pass them as additional source args with
a trailing slash, using --relative to make the  paths  match  up
right.  For example:

rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

This  works  because  rsync  calls lstat(2) on the source arg as
giving  rise to a directory in the file-list which overrides the
symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

This option causes the receiving side to treat a  symlink  to  a
directory  as  though  it  were a real directory, but only if it
matches a real directory from the sender.  Without this  option,
directory.

For example, suppose you transfer a directory  "foo"  that  con-
tains  a  file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to directory "bar"
keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust
all the symlinks  in  the  copy!   If  it  is  possible  for  an
untrusted user to create their own symlink to any directory, the
user could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink  with
a  real  directory  and affect the content of whatever directory
the symlink references.  For backup copies, you are  better  off
using something like a bind mount instead of a symlink to modify

side.

This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and
link together the corresponding files on the destination.  With-
out  this option, hard-linked files in the source are treated as
though they were separate files.

This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard
links  on  the  destination  exactly matches that on the source.
Cases in which the destination may end up with extra hard  links
include the following:

o      If  the  destination contains extraneous hard-links (more
linking than what is present in the  source  file  list),
the  copying  algorithm  will  not break them explicitly.

linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how
your  files  are  being  updated so that you are certain that no
unintended changes happen due to lingering hard links  (and  see
the --inplace option for more caveats).

If  incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync may
transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
link  for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.  This
does not affect the accuracy of the transfer (i.e.  which  files
are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying the
data for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have
been  found  later  in  the  transfer  in  another member of the
hard-linked set of files).  One way to avoid  this  inefficiency
is to disable incremental recursion using the --no-inc-recursive
option.

-p, --perms
This option causes the receiving rsync to  set  the  destination
the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync  considers  to
be the source permissions.)

When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

o      Existing  files  (including  updated  files) retain their
existing permissions, though the  --executability  option
might change just the execute permission for the file.

o      New  files  get their "normal" permission bits set to the
source  file's  permissions  masked  with  the  receiving
directory's  default  permissions  (either  the receiving
process's umask, or the  permissions  specified  via  the
destination  directory's  default ACL), and their special
permission bits disabled except in the case where  a  new
directory  inherits  a  setgid bit from its parent direc-
tory.

Thus,  when  --perms  and  --executability  are  both  disabled,
rsync's  behavior  is the same as that of other file-copy utili-
ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

In summary: to give destination files (both  old  and  new)  the
source permissions, use --perms.  To give new files the destina-
tion-default   permissions   (while   leaving   existing   files
unchanged),  make  sure  that  the --perms option is off and use
--chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures  that  all  non-masked  bits  get
enabled).   If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier to
type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
line  in  the file ~/.popt (the following defines the -Z option,
and includes --no-g to use the default group of the  destination
The  preservation  of the destination's setgid bit on newly-cre-
ated directories when --perms is off was added in  rsync  2.6.7.
Older  rsync  versions  erroneously  preserved the three special
permission bits for newly-created files when  --perms  was  off,
while  overriding  the  destination's  setgid  bit  setting on a
newly-created directory.  Default ACL observance  was  added  to
the  ACL  patch  for  rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled)
rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in
mind  that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects
these behaviors.)

-E, --executability
This option causes  rsync  to  preserve  the  executability  (or
non-executability) of regular files when --perms is not enabled.
A regular file is considered to be executable if  at  least  one
'x'  is turned on in its permissions.  When an existing destina-
tion file's executability differs from that of the corresponding
source  file,  rsync modifies the destination file's permissions
as follows:

o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns  off  all  its
'x' permissions.

o      To  make  a file executable, rsync turns on each 'x' per-
mission that has a corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

-A, --acls
This option causes rsync to update the destination  ACLs  to  be
the same as the source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

The  source  and  destination  systems  must have compatible ACL
entries for this option to work properly.  See the  --fake-super
option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compat-
ible.

-X, --xattrs
This option causes rsync  to  update  the  destination  extended
attributes to be the same as the source ones.

For  systems  that support extended-attribute namespaces, a copy
being done by a super-user copies  all  namespaces  except  sys-
tem.*.   A  normal user only copies the user.* namespace.  To be
able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal user,
see the --fake-super option.

Note  that this option does not copy rsyncs special xattr values
(e.g. those used by --fake-super) unless you repeat  the  option
(e.g.  -XX).   This  "copy  all xattrs" mode cannot be used with
--fake-super.
marked set-gid, that no files are other-writable, that both  are
user-writable  and group-writable, and that both have consistent
executability across all bits:

--chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X

Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:

--chmod=D2775,F664

It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod  options,  as  each
additional  option  is  just  appended to the list of changes to
make.

See the --perms and --executability options for how the  result-
ing  permission  value can be applied to the files in the trans-
fer.

-o, --owner
This option causes rsync to set the  owner  of  the  destination
file  to be the same as the source file, but only if the receiv-
ing rsync is being run as the super-user (see also  the  --super
and  --fake-super  options).   Without this option, the owner of
new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the
receiving side.

The  preservation  of ownership will associate matching names by
default, but may fall back to using the ID number in  some  cir-
sion).

-g, --group
This option causes rsync to set the  group  of  the  destination
file  to  be the same as the source file.  If the receiving pro-
gram is not running as the  super-user  (or  if  --no-super  was
specified),  only groups that the invoking user on the receiving
side is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
group  is  set  to the default group of the invoking user on the
receiving side.

The preservation of group information  will  associate  matching
names  by  default,  but may fall back to using the ID number in
discussion).

--devices
This  option causes rsync to transfer character and block device
files to the remote system  to  recreate  these  devices.   This
option  has  no  effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the
delta-transfer  algorithm  will make the update fairly efficient
if the files haven't actually changed, you're  much  better  off
using -t).

-O, --omit-dir-times
This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modi-
fication times (see --times).  If NFS is sharing the directories
on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.  This option
is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

This option also has the side-effect of avoiding early  creation
of  directories  in  incremental  recursion copies.  The default
--inc-recursive copying normally does an  early-create  pass  of
all the sub-directories in a parent directory in order for it to
be able to then set the modify  time  of  the  parent  directory
right away (without having to delay that until a bunch of recur-
sive copying has finished).  This early-create idiom is not nec-
essary  if directory modify times are not being preserved, so it
is skipped.  Since early-create directories don't have  accurate
mode,  mtime, or ownership, the use of this option can help when
someone wants to avoid these partially-finished directories.

This tells rsync to omit symlinks when it is preserving  modifi-
cation times (see --times).

--super
This  tells  the receiving side to attempt super-user activities
even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user.  These
activities  include:  preserving  users  via the --owner option,
preserving all groups (not just the current user's  groups)  via
the  --groups  option,  and  copying  devices  via the --devices
option.  This is useful for systems that allow  such  activities
without  being  the  super-user,  and also for ensuring that you
will get errors if the receiving side isn't  being  run  as  the
super-user.   To  turn off super-user activities, the super-user
can use --no-super.

--fake-super
When this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user  activi-
ties  by  saving/restoring the privileged attributes via special
extended attributes that are attached to each file (as  needed).
This  includes  the  file's  owner  and  group (if it is not the
default), the file's device info (device  &  special  files  are
created  as  empty  text files), and any permission bits that we
won't allow to be set on the real file (e.g.  the real file gets
u-s,g-s,o-t  for  safety) or that would limit the owner's access
(since the real super-user can always access/change a file,  the
files  we  create can always be accessed/changed by the creating
user).  This option also handles ACLs (if --acls was  specified)
and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

file.

-S, --sparse
Try  to  handle  sparse  files  efficiently so they take up less
space on the destination.  Conflicts with --inplace because it's
not possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.

--preallocate
This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file to its
eventual size before writing data to the file.  Rsync will  only
use  the real filesystem-level preallocation support provided by
Linux's fallocate(2) system call or Cygwin's posix_fallocate(3),
not  the  slow glibc implementation that writes a zero byte into
each block.

Without this option, larger files may not be entirely contiguous
on the filesystem, but with this option rsync will probably copy
more slowly.  If the destination  is  not  an  extent-supporting
filesystem (such as ext4, xfs, NTFS, etc.), this option may have
no positive effect at all.

-n, --dry-run
This makes rsync perform a  trial  run  that  doesn't  make  any
changes (and produces mostly the same output as a real run).  It
is most commonly used in  combination  with  the  -v,  --verbose
and/or  -i,  --itemize-changes options to see what an rsync com-
mand is going to do before one actually runs it.

The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to  be  exactly  the
same on a dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
trickery and system call failures); if it isn't, that's  a  bug.
Other  output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in some
areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send  the  actual  data  for
file  transfers,  so --progress has no effect, the "bytes sent",
"bytes received", "literal data", and "matched data"  statistics
are  too  small,  and the "speedup" value is equivalent to a run
where no file transfers were needed.

-W, --whole-file
With this option rsync's delta-transfer algorithm  is  not  used
and  the  whole file is sent as-is instead.  The transfer may be
faster if this option is used when  the  bandwidth  between  the
source  and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
disk  (especially  when  the  "disk"  is  actually  a  networked
filesystem).   This is the default when both the source and des-
tination  are  specified  as  local  paths,  but  only   if   no
batch-writing option is in effect.
directory are inaccessible).

is  treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories are
unaffected by this option.

--existing, --ignore-non-existing
This tells rsync to skip creating files (including  directories)
that  do  not  exist  yet on the destination.  If this option is
combined with the --ignore-existing option,  no  files  will  be
updated  (which  can  be  useful if all you want to do is delete
extraneous files).

This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the

--ignore-existing
This  tells  rsync  to skip updating files that already exist on
the destination (this does not ignore existing  directories,  or

This  option  is  a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
affect the data that goes  into  the  file-lists,  and  thus  it
doesn't  affect  deletions.   It  just limits the files that the

This option can be useful for  those  doing  backups  using  the
--link-dest  option when they need to continue a backup run that
got interrupted.  Since a --link-dest run is copied into  a  new
directory  hierarchy  (when it is used properly), using --ignore
existing will ensure that the already-handled  files  don't  get
tweaked (which avoids a change in permissions on the hard-linked
files).  This does mean that this option is only looking at  the
existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

--remove-source-files
This  tells  rsync  to  remove  from  the sending side the files
(meaning non-directories) that are a part of  the  transfer  and
have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

Note  that  you should only use this option on source files that
are quiescent.  If you are using this to move files that show up
in  a  particular directory over to another host, make sure that
the finished files get renamed into the  source  directory,  not
directly  written into it, so that rsync can't possibly transfer
a file that is not yet fully written.  If you can't first  write
the  files  into  a different directory, you should use a naming
idiom that lets rsync avoid transferring files that are not  yet
finished  (e.g.  name  the  file  "foo.new"  when it is written,
a  request  to  transfer individual files, not the files' parent
directory.  Files that are excluded from the transfer  are  also
excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
option or mark the rules as only matching on  the  sending  side
(see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

Prior  to  rsync  2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless
--recursive was enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7,  deletions  will
also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
whose contents are being copied.

This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a  very
good  idea to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n) to
see what files are going to be deleted.

If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
any  files  at  the  destination will be automatically disabled.
This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures  (such  as  NFS
errors)  on  the sending side from causing a massive deletion of
files on the  destination.   You  can  override  this  with  the
--ignore-errors option.

The   --delete   option   may   be  combined  with  one  of  the
--delete-WHEN   options   without   conflict,   as    well    as
--delete-excluded.    However,  if  none  of  the  --delete-WHEN
options are specified, rsync  will  choose  the  --delete-during
algorithm  when  talking  to  rsync  3.0.0  or  newer,  and  the
--delete-before algorithm when talking to an older  rsync.   See
also --delete-delay and --delete-after.

--delete-before
Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
before the transfer starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for
more details on file-deletion.

Deleting  before  the  transfer  is helpful if the filesystem is
tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to make
the  transfer  possible.   However,  it  does  introduce a delay
before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the
transfer  to  timeout  (if  --timeout  was  specified).  It also
forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
that  requires  rsync to scan all the files in the transfer into
memory at once (see --recursive).

--delete-during, --del
Request that the file-deletions on the receiving  side  be  done
incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory delete
scan is done right before each directory is checked for updates,
so  it  behaves like a more efficient --delete-before, including
doing the deletions prior  to  any  per-directory  filter  files
being  updated.   This  option  was first added in rsync version
2.6.4.  See --delete (which is  implied)  for  more  details  on
--delete-after (which it cannot do if --recursive  is  doing  an
incremental  scan).   See  --delete  (which is implied) for more
details on file-deletion.

--delete-after
Request that the file-deletions on the receiving  side  be  done
after  the  transfer  has  completed.  This is useful if you are
sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the  transfer
and  you  want  their  exclusions  to take effect for the delete
phase of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use  the
old,  non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to
scan all the files in the transfer  into  memory  at  once  (see
--recursive).   See --delete (which is implied) for more details
on file-deletion.

--delete-excluded
In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are
not  on  the  sending  side, this tells rsync to also delete any
files on the receiving side that are excluded  (see  --exclude).
See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual exclu-
sions behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to  protect
files  from  --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied)
for more details on file-deletion.

--ignore-missing-args
When rsync is first processing the explicitly  requested  source
files  (e.g. command-line arguments or --files-from entries), it
is normally an error if the file cannot be found.   This  option
suppresses  that  error,  and does not try to transfer the file.
This does not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if  a  file
was initially found to be present and later is no longer there.

--delete-missing-args
This  option  takes the behavior of (the implied) --ignore-miss-
ing-args option a step farther:  each missing arg will become  a
deletion  request  of  the corresponding destination file on the
receiving side (should it exist).  If the destination file is  a
non-empty  directory,  it  will  only be successfully deleted if
--force or --delete are in effect.  Other than that, this option
is independent of any other type of delete processing.

The  missing  source  files are represented by special file-list
entries which display as a "*missing" entry in  the  --list-only
output.

--ignore-errors
Tells  --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are
I/O errors.

--force
This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when  it
is  to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant if
Beginning  with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to
be warned about any extraneous files in the destination  without
removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as "unlim-
ited", so if you don't know what version the client is, you  can
use  the  less  obvious --max-delete=-1 as a backward-compatible
way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though  really  old
versions didn't warn when the limit was exceeded).

--max-size=SIZE
This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger
than the specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be suffixed  with  a
string  to  indicate  a size multiplier, and may be a fractional
value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the

The  suffixes  are  as  follows:  "K"  (or  "KiB") is a kibibyte
(1024), "M" (or "MiB") is a mebibyte (1024*1024),  and  "G"  (or
"GiB")  is  a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).  If you want the multi-
plier to be 1000 instead of  1024,  use  "KB",  "MB",  or  "GB".
(Note: lower-case is also accepted for all values.)  Finally, if
the suffix ends in either "+1" or "-1", the value will be offset
by one byte in the indicated direction.

Examples:    --max-size=1.5mb-1    is    1499999    bytes,   and
--max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

Note  that  rsync  versions  prior  to  3.1.0  did   not   allow
--max-size=0.

--min-size=SIZE
This  tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller
than the specified SIZE, which  can  help  in  not  transferring
small,  junk files.  See the --max-size option for a description
of SIZE and other information.

Note  that  rsync  versions  prior  to  3.1.0  did   not   allow
--min-size=0.

-B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
This  forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer algo-
rithm to a fixed value.  It is normally selected  based  on  the
size  of  each file being updated.  See the technical report for
details.

-e, --rsh=COMMAND
This option allows you to choose  an  alternative  remote  shell
program  to  use  for communication between the local and remote
copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to  use  ssh  by
double-quotes  to  preserve spaces in an argument (but not back-
slashes).  Note that  doubling  a  single-quote  inside  a  sin-
gle-quoted  string  gives  you a single-quote; likewise for dou-
ble-quotes (though you need to pay  attention  to  which  quotes
your  shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some
examples:

-e 'ssh -p 2234'
-e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

(Note that ssh users  can  alternately  customize  site-specific
connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
environment variable, which accepts the same range of values  as
-e.

See  also  the  --blocking-io  option  which is affected by this
option.

--rsync-path=PROGRAM
Use this to specify what program is to  be  run  on  the  remote
machine  to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in the
default           remote-shell's           path            (e.g.
--rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note  that  PROGRAM is run
with the help of a shell, so it can be any program,  script,  or
command  sequence you'd care to run, so long as it does not cor-
rupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to  com-
municate.

One  tricky  example  is to set a different default directory on
the remote machine for use  with  the  --relative  option.   For
instance:

rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

-M, --remote-option=OPTION
This  option is used for more advanced situations where you want
certain effects to be limited to one side of the transfer  only.
For   instance,   if   you  want  to  pass  --log-file=FILE  and
--fake-super to the remote system, specify it like this:

rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

If you want to have an option affect only the local  side  of  a
transfer  when it normally affects both sides, send its negation
to the remote side.  Like this:

rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/

and the "remote" side is the receiver.

Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library have a bug
in  them  that  prevents  you from using an adjacent arg with an
equal  in   it   next   to   a   short   option   letter   (e.g.
-M--log-file=/tmp/foo.   If  this  bug  affects  your version of
popt, you can use the version of  popt  that  is  included  with
rsync.

-C, --cvs-exclude
This  is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files
that you often don't want to transfer between systems. It uses a
similar  algorithm  to  CVS  to  determine  if  a file should be
ignored.

The exclude list is initialized to exclude the  following  items
(these  initial items are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER
RULES section):

RCS  SCCS  CVS  CVS.adm   RCSLOG   cvslog.*   tags   TAGS
.make.state  .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak
*.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so  *.exe
*.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

then,  files  listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace). Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed therein. Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on whitespace. See the cvs(1) manual for more information. If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own rules, regardless of where the -C was placed on the com- mand-line. This makes them a lower priority than any rules you specified explicitly. If you want to control where these CVS excludes get inserted into your filter rules, you should omit the -C as a command-line option and use a combination of --fil- ter=:C and --filter=-C (either on your command-line or by putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter file with your other rules). The first option turns on the per-directory scan- ning for the .cvsignore file. The second option does a one-time import of the CVS excludes mentioned above. -f, --filter=RULE This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude cer- tain files from the list of files to be transferred. This is most useful in combination with a recursive transfer. --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter' This tells rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files that have been sprinkled through the hierarchy and use their rules to filter the files in the transfer. If -F is repeated, it is a shorthand for this rule: --filter='exclude .rsync-filter' This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the transfer. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how these options work. --exclude=PATTERN This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an exclude rule and does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. --exclude-from=FILE This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies a FILE that contains exclude patterns (one per line). Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored. If FILE is -, the list will be read from standard input. --include=PATTERN This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an include rule and does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. --include-from=FILE This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies a FILE that contains include patterns (one per line). Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored. If FILE is -, the list will be read from standard input. --files-from=FILE Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of files to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or - for standard input). It also tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make transferring just the specified files and directories easier: o These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so the position of the --files-from option on the com- mand-line has no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g. -a works the same before or after --files-from, as does --no-R and all other options). The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to the source dir -- any leading slashes are removed and no ".." references are allowed to go higher than the source dir. For example, take this command: rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote host. If it contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the immediate contents of the directory would also be sent (without needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began in version 2.6.4). In both cases, if the -r option was enabled, that dir's entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from, since it is not implied by -a). Also note that the effect of the (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only the path info that is read from the file -- it does not force the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case). In addition, the --files-from file can be read from the remote host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer). As a short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the remote end of the transfer". For example: rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy This would copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list file that was located on the remote "src" host. If the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to another, the filenames will be translated from the sending host's charset to the receiving host's charset. NOTE: sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps rsync to be more efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the path elements that are shared between adjacent entries. If the input is not sorted, some path elements (implied directories) may end up being scanned multiple times, and rsync will eventu- ally unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list ele- special characters are not translated (such as ~,$, ;, &,
etc.).  Wildcards are expanded  on  the  remote  host  by  rsync
(instead of the shell doing it).

If  you  use  this  option with --iconv, the args related to the
remote side will also be translated from the local to the remote
character-set.   The  translation  happens before wild-cards are

You may also control  this  option  via  the  RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
environment  variable.   If  this variable has a non-zero value,
this option will be enabled by default,  otherwise  it  will  be
disabled  by  default.  Either state is overridden by a manually
specified positive or negative version of this option (note that
--no-s  and --no-protect-args are the negative versions).  Since
this option was first introduced in 3.0.0, you'll need  to  make
sure  it's  disabled  if you ever need to interact with a remote
rsync that is older than that.

Rsync can also be configured (at build time) to have this option
enabled  by  default (with is overridden by both the environment
and the command-line).  This option will eventually become a new
default setting at some as-yet-undetermined point in the future.

-T, --temp-dir=DIR
This  option  instructs  rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory
when creating temporary copies of the files transferred  on  the
receiving  side.   The default behavior is to create each tempo-
rary file in the same directory as  the  associated  destination
file.   Beginning  with  rsync 3.1.1, the temp-file names inside
the specified DIR will not be prefixed with an extra dot (though
they will still have a random suffix added).

This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition
does not have enough free space to hold a copy  of  the  largest
file  in  the  transfer.   In  this  case (i.e. when the scratch
directory is on a different disk partition), rsync will  not  be
able  to rename each received temporary file over the top of the
associated destination file,  but  instead  must  copy  it  into
place.   Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the
destination file, which means that  the  destination  file  will
contain  truncated data during this copy.  If this were not done
this way (even if the destination file were first  removed,  the
data  locally  copied  to  a  temporary  file in the destination
directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it
open), and thus there might not be enough room to  fit  the  new
version on the disk at the same time.

If  you  are using this option for reasons other than a shortage
of  disk  space,  you  may  wish  to   combine   it   with   the
--delay-updates  option, which will ensure that all copied files
any  destination  file  that  is missing.  The current algorithm
looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a
file  that  has  an identical size and modified-time, or a simi-
larly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file  to
try to speed up the transfer.

If  the  option is repeated, the fuzzy scan will also be done in
any matching alternate destination directories that  are  speci-
fied via --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or --link-dest.

Note  that  the  use of the --delete option might get rid of any
potential fuzzy-match files, so  either  use  --delete-after  or
specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

--compare-dest=DIR
This  option  instructs  rsync  to  use  DIR  on the destination
machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination  files
against  doing transfers (if the files are missing in the desti-
nation directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is  identical
to  the  sender's  file, the file will NOT be transferred to the
destination directory.  This is useful  for  creating  a  sparse
backup  of  just files that have changed from an earlier backup.
This option is typically used to copy into an  empty  (or  newly
created) directory.

Beginning  in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories
may be provided, which will cause rsync to search  the  list  in
the  order  specified  for  an exact match.  If a match is found
that differs only in attributes, a local copy is  made  and  the
attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the  trans-
fer.

If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination

NOTE: beginning with version 3.1.0, rsync  will  remove  a  file
from  a  non-empty  destination  hierarchy  if an exact match is
found in one of the compare-dest  hierarchies  (making  the  end
result more closely match a fresh copy).

--copy-dest=DIR
This  option  behaves  like  --compare-dest, but rsync will also
copy unchanged files found in DIR to the  destination  directory
using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new
destination while leaving existing files intact, and then  doing
a  flash-cutover  when  all  files have been successfully trans-
ferred.

Multiple --copy-dest directories may  be  provided,  which  will
cause  rsync  to  search  the list in the order specified for an
unchanged file.  If a match is not found, a basis file from  one

If file's aren't linking, double-check their  attributes.   Also
check  if  some attributes are getting forced outside of rsync's
control, such a mount option that  squishes  root  to  a  single
user,  or  mounts a removable drive with generic ownership (such
as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
be  provided,  which  will cause rsync to search the list in the
order specified for an exact match.  If a match  is  found  that
differs  only  in  attributes,  a  local  copy  is  made and the
attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file  from
one  of  the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the trans-
fer.

This option works best when copying into  an  empty  destination
hierarchy,  as  existing files may get their attributes tweaked,
and that can affect alternate destination files via  hard-links.
Also,  itemizing  of  changes  can get a bit muddled.  Note that
prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would
never be found (nor linked into the destination) when a destina-

Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times,  rsync
files together as a substitute for transferring the file,  never
as an additional check after the file is updated.

If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination

Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had  a  bug  that  could
prevent  --link-dest  from working properly for a non-super-user
when -o was specified (or implied by -a).  You  can  work-around
this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync.

-z, --compress
With  this  option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent
to the destination machine, which reduces  the  amount  of  data
being  transmitted  -- something that is useful over a slow con-
nection.

Note that this  option  typically  achieves  better  compression
ratios  than can be achieved by using a compressing remote shell
or a compressing transport because it  takes  advantage  of  the
implicit  information  in  the matching data blocks that are not
explicitly sent over the connection.   This  matching-data  com-
pression  comes at a cost of CPU, though, and can be disabled by
repeating the -z option, but only if both  sides  are  at  least
version 3.1.1.

Note that if your version of rsync was compiled with an external

--compress-level=NUM
Explicitly set the compression level  to  use  (see  --compress)
instead  of  letting it default.  If NUM is non-zero, the --com-
press option is implied.

--skip-compress=LIST
Override the list of file suffixes that will not be  compressed.
The  LIST  should be one or more file suffixes (without the dot)
separated by slashes (/).

You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file  should
be skipped.

Simple  character-class matching is supported: each must consist
of a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported, and '-' has no spe-
cial meaning).

The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have  no  spe-
cial meaning.

Here's  an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of
the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):

--skip-compress=gz/jpg/mp[34]/7z/bz2

The default list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this
(in this version of rsync):

7z  ace  avi bz2 deb gpg gz iso jpeg jpg lz lzma lzo mov mp3 mp4
ogg png rar rpm rzip tbz tgz tlz txz xz z zip

This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list  in  all
but  one  situation:  a  copy  from a daemon rsync will add your
skipped suffixes to its list of non-compressing files  (and  its
list may be configured to a different default).

--numeric-ids
With  this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs
rather than using user and group names and mapping them at  both
ends.

By  default  rsync will use the username and groupname to deter-
mine what ownership to give files. The special  uid  0  and  the
special  group  0  are never mapped via user/group names even if
the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no
match  on  the  destination system, then the numeric ID from the
"use  chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information
example:

The first match in the list is the one that is used.  You should
specify all your user mappings using a single --usermap  option,
and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option.

Note  that  the  sender's  name for the 0 user and group are not
transmitted to the receiver, so you should  either  match  these
values  using  a  0, or use the names in effect on the receiving
side (typically "root").  All other FROM names  match  those  in
use on the sending side.  All TO names match those in use on the
receiving side.

Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are  treated
as  having  an  empty  name  for  the purpose of matching.  This
allows them to be matched via a "*" or using an empty name.  For
instance:

--usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

When  the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not send
any names, so all the IDs are treated as having an  empty  name.
This  means that you will need to specify numeric FROM values if
you want to map these nameless IDs to different values.

For the --usermap option to have any effect,  the  -o  (--owner)
option  must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to
For  the --groupmap option to have any effect, the -g (--groups)
option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need  to
have permissions to set that group.

--chown=USER:GROUP
This  option  forces  all  files  to be owned by USER with group
GROUP.  This is a simpler interface  than  using  --usermap  and
--groupmap  directly,  but it is implemented using those options
internally, so you cannot mix them.  If either the USER or GROUP
is  empty, no mapping for the omitted user/group will occur.  If
GROUP is empty, the trailing colon may be omitted, but  if  USER
is empty, a leading colon must be supplied.

If  you  specify  "--chown=foo:bar,  this is exactly the same as
specifying "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier.

--timeout=TIMEOUT
This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in  seconds.
If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will
exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.
the default of 873.  This is only needed if you  are  using  the
double-colon  (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since
the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a  part  of  the

--sockopts
This  option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune
their systems to the utmost degree. You can  set  all  sorts  of
socket  options  which  may  make transfers faster (or slower!).
Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call  for  details
on  some  of  the  options you may be able to set. By default no
special socket options are set. This only affects direct  socket
connections  to  a remote rsync daemon.  This option also exists
in the --daemon mode section.

--blocking-io
This tells rsync to use blocking I/O  when  launching  a  remote
shell  transport.   If  the remote shell is either rsh or remsh,
rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it  defaults  to
using  non-blocking  I/O.   (Note  that ssh prefers non-blocking
I/O.)

--outbuf=MODE
This sets the output buffering mode.  The mode can be None  (aka
Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full).  You may specify as lit-
tle as a single letter for the mode,  and  use  upper  or  lower
case.

The  main use of this option is to change Full buffering to Line
buffering when rsync's output is going to a file or pipe.

-i, --itemize-changes
Requests a simple itemized list of the changes  that  are  being
made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.   If  you  repeat
the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the
receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv  with
older  versions  of  rsync, but that also turns on the output of
other verbose messages).

The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is  11  letters  long.
The  general  format  is like the string YXcstpoguax, where Y is
replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by  the
file-type,  and  the other letters represent attributes that may
be output if they are being modified.

The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

o      A < means that a file is being transferred to the  remote
host (sent).

o      A  >  means that a file is being transferred to the local

The  file-types  that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a
directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S  for  a
special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

The  other  letters  in  the string above are the actual letters
that will be output if the associated attribute for the item  is
being  updated or a "." for no change.  Three exceptions to this
are: (1) a newly created item replaces each letter with  a  "+",
(2)  an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3) an
unknown attribute replaces each letter with a "?" (this can hap-
pen when talking to an older rsync).

The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

o      A  c  means  either  that  a regular file has a different
checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device,
or  special  file  has a changed value.  Note that if you
are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change
flag  will be present only for checksum-differing regular
files.

o      A s means the size of a regular  file  is  different  and
will be updated by the file transfer.

o      A t means the modification time is different and is being
updated to the sender's  value  (requires  --times).   An
alternate  value  of  T  means that the modification time
will be set to the transfer time, which  happens  when  a
file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a
(Note:  when  using  an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see
the s flag combined with t instead of the proper  T  flag
for this time-setting failure.)

o      A  p  means  the  permissions are different and are being
updated to the sender's value (requires --perms).

o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated to
the sender's value (requires --owner and super-user priv-
ileges).

o      A g means the group is different and is being updated  to
the sender's value (requires --group and the authority to
set the group).

o      The u slot is reserved for future use.

o      The a means that the ACL information changed.

o      The x  means  that  the  extended  attribute  information
assumed if either --info=name or -v is specified (this tells you
just the name of the file and, if the item is a link,  where  it
points).  For a full list of the possible escape characters, see
the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

Specifying  the  --out-format  option  implies  the  --info=name
option,  which  will  mention  each  file,  dir,  etc. that gets
updated in a significant way (a transferred  file,  a  recreated
itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in the string  (e.g.  if
the  --itemize-changes  option  was  used), the logging of names
increases to mention any item that is changed  in  any  way  (as
long  as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).  See the --item-
ize-changes option for a description of the output of "%i".

Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's trans-
fer  unless  one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested,
in which case the logging is done  at  the  end  of  the  file's
transfer.  When this late logging is in effect and --progress is
also specified, rsync will also output  the  name  of  the  file
being  transferred  prior to its progress information (followed,
of course, by the out-format output).

--log-file=FILE
This option causes rsync to log what it  is  doing  to  a  file.
This  is  similar  to the logging that a daemon does, but can be
requested for the client  side  and/or  the  server  side  of  a
non-daemon  transfer.  If specified as a client option, transfer
logging will be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See
the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

Here's  a  example  command that requests the remote side to log
what is happening:

rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

This is very useful if you need to debug  why  a  connection  is
closing unexpectedly.

--log-file-format=FORMAT
This  allows  you  to specify exactly what per-update logging is
put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must
also  be  specified for this option to have any effect).  If you
specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned  in
the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see
the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

The default FORMAT used if  --log-file  is  specified  and  this
option is not is '%i %n%L'.

--stats
links, devices, and special files.  If any of value is 0,
it is completely omitted from the list.

o      Number of created files is the count of how many  "files"
(generic  sense)  were  created  (as opposed to updated).
The total count will be followed by a list of  counts  by
filetype (if the total is non-zero).

o      Number  of deleted files is the count of how many "files"
(generic sense) were created  (as  opposed  to  updated).
The  total  count will be followed by a list of counts by
filetype (if the total is non-zero).  Note that this line
is  only  output  if deletions are in effect, and only if
protocol 31 is being used (the default for rsync 3.1.x).

o      Number of regular files transferred is the count of  nor-
mal  files  that  were updated via rsync's delta-transfer
algorithm, which does not include  dirs,  symlinks,  etc.
Note  that rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into this

o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the
transfer.   This  does not count any size for directories
or special files, but does include the size of symlinks.

o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files
sizes for just the transferred files.

o      Literal  data  is  how much unmatched file-update data we
updated files.

o      Matched  data  is  how much data the receiver got locally
when recreating the updated files.

o      File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
in-memory size for the file list due to some  compressing
of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

o      File  list  generation time is the number of seconds that
the sender spent creating the file list.  This requires a
modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the
sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.

o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
sent from the client side to the server side.

o      Total  bytes  received  is  the  count of all non-message
bytes that rsync received by the  client  side  from  the

its.  For example, a newline would output as "\#012".  A literal
backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol-
lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

Output  numbers  in  a  more human-readable format.  There are 3
possible levels:  (1) output numbers with  a  separator  between
each  set  of 3 digits (either a comma or a period, depending on
if the decimal point is represented by a period or a comma); (2)
output  numbers  in  units  of 1000 (with a character suffix for
larger units -- see below); (3) output numbers in units of 1024.

The default is human-readable level 1.  Each -h option increases
the  level  by one.  You can take the level down to 0 (to output
numbers as pure digits)  by  specifing  the  --no-human-readable
(--no-h) option.

The  unit  letters  that  are  appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K
(kilo), M (mega),  G  (giga),  or  T  (tera).   For  example,  a
1234567-byte  file  would  output  as 1.23M in level-2 (assuming
that a period is your local decimal point).

Backward compatibility note:  versions of rsync prior  to  3.1.0
do not support human-readable level 1, and they default to level
0.  Thus, specifying one or two -h options will behave in a com-
parable  manner  in  old  and new versions as long as you didn't
specify a --no-h option prior to one or more  -h  options.   See
the --list-only option for one difference.

--partial
By  default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if
the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances  it  is  more
desirable  to keep partially transferred files. Using the --par-
tial option tells rsync to keep the partial  file  which  should
make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

--partial-dir=DIR
A  better way to keep partial files than the --partial option is
to specify a DIR that will be used  to  hold  the  partial  data
(instead  of  writing  it  out to the destination file).  On the
next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this dir  as  data
to  speed  up  the resumption of the transfer and then delete it
after it has served its purpose.

Note that if --whole-file is specified (or  implied),  any  par-
tial-dir  file  that  is  found for a file that is being updated
will simply be removed (since rsync  is  sending  files  without
using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir --
not the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a relative  path
(such  as  "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial")  to have rsync create
(1) the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the  end  of  your
other  rules,  or  (2)  you may wish to override rsync's exclude
choice.  For instance, if you want to make  rsync  clean-up  any
left-over  partial-dirs  that  may  be  lying around, you should
specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.  -f 'R
.rsync-partial/'.  (Avoid using --delete-before or --delete-dur-
ing unless you don't need rsync to use any of the left-over par-
tial-dir data during the current run.)

IMPORTANT:  the  --partial-dir  should  not be writable by other
users or it is a security risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

You can also set the  partial-dir  value  the  RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
environment  variable.  Setting this in the environment does not
force --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where  par-
tial  files  go  when  --partial  is  specified.   For instance,
instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress,
you  could  set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment
and then just use the -P option  to  turn  on  the  use  of  the
.rsync-tmp  dir  for partial transfers.  The only times that the
--partial option does not look for this  environment  value  are
(1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with
--partial-dir), and (2) when --delay-updates was specified  (see
below).

For  the  purposes  of the daemon-config's "refuse options" set-
ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so that a
refusal  of  the  --partial  option  can be used to disallow the
overwriting of destination files with a partial transfer,  while
still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

This  option puts the temporary file from each updated file into
a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time
all  the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.  This
attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
By  default the files are placed into a directory named ".~tmp~"
in each file's destination directory, but  if  you've  specified
the  --partial-dir  option, that directory will be used instead.
See the comments in the --partial-dir section for  a  discussion
of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the transfer, and
what you can do if you want rsync to cleanup old  ".~tmp~"  dirs
that  might  be  lying  around.   Conflicts  with  --inplace and
--append.

This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit  per
file  transferred)  and  also requires enough free disk space on
the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
files.   Note  also  that you should not use an absolute path to
--partial-dir unless (1) there is no chance of any of the  files
in  the  transfer  having  the  same name (since all the updated
files will be put into a single directory if the path  is  abso-
include/exclude/filter rules.

Note that the use of transfer  rules,  such  as  the  --min-size
option,  does  not affect what goes into the file list, and thus
does not leave directories empty, even if none of the files in a
directory match the transfer rule.

Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also
affects what directories get deleted when a  delete  is  active.
However,  keep  in  mind that excluded files and directories can
prevent existing items from being deleted due to an exclude both
hiding  source  files and protecting destination files.  See the
perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

You can prevent the pruning of certain  empty  directories  from
the file-list by using a global "protect" filter.  For instance,
this option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was  kept
in the file-list:

--filter 'protect emptydir/'

Here's  an  example  that  copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy,
only creating the necessary destination directories to hold  the
.pdf  files, and ensures that any superfluous files and directo-
ries in the destination are removed (note  the  hide  filter  of
non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

If  you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the
more  time-honored  options  of  "--include='*/'  --exclude='*'"
would  work  fine  in  place of the hide-filter (if that is more
natural to you).

--progress
This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
progress  of  the transfer. This gives a bored user something to
watch.  With a modern rsync  this  is  the  same  as  specifying
--info=flist2,name,progress,  but any user-supplied settings for
those  info  flags   takes   precedence   (e.g.   "--info=flist0
--progress").

While  rsync  is  transferring  a  regular  file,  it  updates a
progress line that looks like this:

782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes  or
63% of the sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate
1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the
average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete,  it  was
the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync ses-
sion, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to
see  if  they  are  up-to-date  or not) remaining out of the 396
total files in the file-list.

In an incremental recursion scan, rsync  won't  know  the  total
number  of  files  in the file-list until it reaches the ends of
the scan, but since it starts to transfer files during the scan,
it  will  display a line with the text "ir-chk" (for incremental
recursion check) instead of "to-chk" until  the  point  that  it
knows  the  full size of the list, at which point it will switch
to using "to-chk".  Thus, seeing "ir-chk" lets you know that the
total count of files in the file list is still going to increase
(and each time it does, the count of files left to  check   will
increase by the number of the files added to the list).

-P     The  -P  option is equivalent to --partial --progress.  Its pur-
pose is to make it much easier to specify these two options  for
a long transfer that may be interrupted.

There  is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs statistics
based on the whole transfer, rather than individual files.   Use
this  flag without outputting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or spec-
ify --info=name0) if you want to see how the transfer  is  doing
without  scrolling  the  screen with a lot of names.  (You don't
need  to  specify  the  --progress  option  in  order   to   use
--info=progress2.)

This  option  allows  you to provide a password for accessing an
rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE is -.  The
file  should  contain  just  the password on the first line (all
other lines are ignored).  Rsync will exit with an error if FILE
is  world  readable  or  if  a  root-run  rsync  command finds a
non-root-owned file.

This option does not supply a password to a remote shell  trans-
port  such  as  ssh; to learn how to do that, consult the remote
shell's documentation.  When accessing an rsync daemon  using  a
remote  shell  as  the  transport,  this  option only comes into
effect after the remote shell finishes its authentication  (i.e.
if  you  have  also  specified a password in the daemon's config
file).

--list-only
This option will cause the source files to be listed instead  of
contain digit separators, but higher levels of readability  will
output  the sizes with unit suffixes.  Note also that the column
width for the size output has increased from 11 to 14 characters
for all human-readable levels.  Use --no-h if you want just dig-
its in the sizes, and the old column width of 11 characters.

Compatibility note:  when requesting a remote listing  of  files
from  an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter
an error if you  ask  for  a  non-recursive  listing.   This  is
because  a  file  listing implies the --dirs option w/o --recur-
sive, and older rsyncs don't have that option.   To  avoid  this
problem,  either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't need
to expand a directory's  content),  or  turn  on  recursion  and
exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

--bwlimit=RATE
This  option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
the data sent over the socket, specified in  units  per  second.
The  RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a size
multiplier,   and   may   be   a    fractional    value    (e.g.
"--bwlimit=1.5m").  If no suffix is specified, the value will be
assumed to be in units of 1024 bytes (as if  "K"  or  "KiB"  had
been  appended).  See the --max-size option for a description of
all the available suffixes. A value of zero specifies no limit.

For backward-compatibility  reasons,  the  rate  limit  will  be
rounded  to  the  nearest KiB unit, so no rate smaller than 1024
bytes per second is possible.

Rsync writes data over the socket in  blocks,  and  this  option
both  limits the size of the blocks that rsync writes, and tries
to keep the average transfer rate at the requested limit.   Some
"burstiness"  may be seen where rsync writes out a block of data
and then sleeps to bring the average rate into compliance.

Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may
not  be  an  accurate  reflection  on how fast the data is being
sent.  This is because some files can show up as  being  rapidly
sent  when the data is quickly buffered, while other can show up
as very slow when the flushing  of  the  output  buffer  occurs.
This may be fixed in a future version.

--write-batch=FILE
Record  a  file  that  can later be applied to another identical
destination with --read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section  for
details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

--only-write-batch=FILE
destination system when  creating  the  batch.   This  lets  you
transport  the  changes to the destination system via some other
means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

Apply  all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously gen-
erated by --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch data  will  be
read  from  standard  input.   See  the "BATCH MODE" section for
details.

--protocol=NUM
Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful  for
creating  a  batch file that is compatible with an older version
of rsync.  For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used  with  the
--write-batch  option,  but  rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to
run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
creating  the  batch file to force the older protocol version to
be used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the  rsync

--iconv=CONVERT_SPEC
Rsync  can  convert  filenames between character sets using this
option.  Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up  the
default  character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately, you
can fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and  a
remote   charset   separated   by   a   comma   in   the   order
--iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g.  --iconv=utf8,iso88591.   This  order
ensures  that the option will stay the same whether you're push-
ing  or  pulling  files.   Finally,  you  can   specify   either
--no-iconv  or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion.
The default setting of this option  is  site-specific,  and  can
also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

For  a  list of what charset names your local iconv library sup-
ports, you can run "iconv --list".

If you specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will trans-
late  the  filenames  you  specify  on the command-line that are
being sent to  the  remote  host.   See  also  the  --files-from
option.

Note  that  rsync  does not do any conversion of names in filter
files (including include/exclude files).  It is  up  to  you  to
ensure  that  you're specifying matching rules that can match on
both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
include/exclude  rules  if there are filename differences on the
two sides that need to be accounted for.

When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon  that  allows
it,  the daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset" con-
figuration parameter regardless of the remote charset you  actu-
ally  pass.   Thus,  you may feel free to specify just the local
charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8).

-4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6  when  creating  sockets.   This
specific checksum seed, which is useful  for  applications  that
want  repeatable  block checksums, or in the case where the user
wants a more random checksum seed.   Setting  NUM  to  0  causes
rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.



## DAEMON OPTIONS

       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

--daemon
This  tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon you
start running may be accessed using an rsync  client  using  the
host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

If  standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is
being run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from  the  current
terminal  and  become a background daemon.  The daemon will read
the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by  a  client
and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man
page for more details.

By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a
daemon  with  the  --daemon option.  The --address option allows
you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to  bind  to.
This  makes  virtual  hosting  possible  in conjunction with the
rsyncd.conf manpage.

--bwlimit=RATE
This  option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
the data the daemon sends over the socket.  The client can still
specify  a  smaller --bwlimit value, but no larger value will be
allowed.  See the client version of this option (above) for some
extra details.

--config=FILE
This  specifies an alternate config file than the default.  This
is only relevant when --daemon is  specified.   The  default  is
/etc/rsyncd.conf  unless  the  daemon  is  running over a remote
shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that
case  the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typi-
cally $HOME). -M, --dparam=OVERRIDE This option can be used to set a daemon-config parameter when starting up rsync in daemon mode. It is equivalent to adding the parameter at the end of the global settings prior to the first module's definition. The parameter names can be specified without spaces, if you so desire. For instance: rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/rsync.pid --log-file=FILE This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given log-file name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config file. --log-file-format=FORMAT This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given FORMAT string instead of using the "log format" setting in the config file. It also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off. --sockopts This overrides the socket options setting in the rsyncd.conf file and has the same syntax. -v, --verbose This option increases the amount of information the daemon logs during its startup phase. After the client connects, the dae- mon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's con- fig section. -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6 Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sock- ets that the rsync daemon will use to listen for connections. One of these options may be required in older versions of Linux to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an "address already in use" error when nothing else is using the port, try specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon). If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option will have no effect. The --version output will tell you if this is the case. -h, --help When specified after --daemon, print a short help page describ- ing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.  ## FILTER RULES  The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to trans- fer (include) and which files to skip (exclude). The rules either directly specify include/exclude patterns or they specify a way to acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file). As the list of files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks each name to be transferred against the list of include/exclude pat- terns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on: if it is an exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern then that filename is not skipped; if no matching pattern is found, then the filename is not skipped. include, + specifies an include pattern. merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules. dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file. hide, H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer. show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden. protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files from dele- tion. risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected. clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg) When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are comment lines that start with a "#". Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the full range of rule parsing as described above -- they only allow the specification of include/exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a file). If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus, space), then the rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string. A --filter option, on the other hand, must always contain either a short or long rule name at the start of the rule. Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one rule/pattern each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option, or the --include-from/--exclude-from options.  ## INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERN RULES  You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+", "-", etc. filter rules (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above). The include/exclude rules each specify a pattern that is matched against the names of the files that are going to be trans- ferred. These patterns can take several forms: o if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a particu- lar spot in the hierarchy of files, otherwise it is matched against the end of the pathname. This is similar to a leading ^ in regular expressions. Thus "/foo" would match a name of "foo" at either the "root of the transfer" (for a global rule) or in the merge-file's directory (for a per-directory rule). An unqualified "foo" would match a name of "foo" anywhere in the tree because the algorithm is applied recursively from the top down; it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at being the end of the filename. Even the unanchored "sub/foo" would match at any point in the hierarchy where a "foo" was found within a directory named "sub". See the section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of how to specify a pattern that matches at the root of the transfer. o if the pattern ends with a / then it will only match a direc- o in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wild- card character, but it is matched literally when no wildcards are present. This means that there is an extra level of back- slash removal when a pattern contains wildcard characters com- pared to a pattern that has none. e.g. if you add a wildcard to "foo\bar" (which matches the backslash) you would need to use "foo\\bar*" to avoid the "\b" becoming just "b". o if the pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing /) or a "**", then it is matched against the full pathname, including any leading directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a / or a "**", then it is matched only against the final component of the filename. (Remember that the algorithm is applied recursively so "full filename" can actually be any portion of a path from the starting directory on down.) o a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if "dir_name/" had been specified) and everything in the directory (as if "dir_name/**" had been specified). This behavior was added in version 2.6.7. Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by -a), every subcomponent of every path is visited from the top down, so include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each subcomponent's full name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo" and "/foo/bar" must not be excluded). The exclude patterns actually short-circuit the directory traversal stage when rsync finds the files to send. If a pattern excludes a particular parent directory, it can render a deeper include pattern ineffectual because rsync did not descend through that excluded section of the hierarchy. This is par- ticularly important when using a trailing '*' rule. For instance, this won't work: + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found + /file-is-included - * This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the '*' rule, so rsync never visits any of the files in the "some" or "some/path" directories. One solution is to ask for all directories in the hierarchy to be included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it somewhere before the "- *" rule), and perhaps use the --prune-empty-dirs option. Another solution is to add specific include rules for all the parent dirs that need to be visited. For instance, this set of rules works fine: + /some/ + /some/path/ + /some/path/this-file-is-found levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root direc- tory o "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named bar two or more levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root direc- tory o The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all directories and C source files but nothing else (see also the --prune-empty-dirs option) o The combination of "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would include only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*") The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-": o A / specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched against the absolute pathname of the current item. For example, "-/ /etc/passwd" would exclude the passwd file any time the transfer was sending files from the "/etc" directory, and "-/ subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer. o A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the pattern fails to match. For instance, "-! */" would exclude all non-directories. o A C is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules should be inserted as excludes in place of the "-C". No arg should follow. o An s is used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending side. When a rule affects the sending side, it prevents files from being transferred. The default is for a rule to affect both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case default rules become sender-side only. See also the hide (H) and show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify send- ing-side includes/excludes. o An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving side. When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files from being deleted. See the s modifier for more info. See also the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way to specify receiver-side includes/excludes. o A p indicates that a rule is perishable, meaning that it is ignored in directories that are being deleted. For instance, the -C option's default rules that exclude things like "CVS" and "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory that was removed on the source from being deleted on the desti- per-directory rule files must be created on the sending side because it is the sending side that is being scanned for the available files to transfer. These rule files may also need to be transferred to the receiving side if you want them to affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE below). Some examples: merge /etc/rsync/default.rules . /etc/rsync/default.rules dir-merge .per-dir-filter dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule: o A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude pat- terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments. o A + specifies that the file should consist of only include pat- terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments. o A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in a CVS-compatible manner. This turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified. If no filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed. o A e will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g. "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules". o An n specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirecto- ries. o A w specifies that the rules are word-split on whitespace instead of the normal line-splitting. This also turns off com- ments. Note: the space that separates the prefix from the rule is treated specially, so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled). o You may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-" rules (above) in order to have the rules that are read in from the file default to having that modifier set (except for the ! modifier, which would not be useful). For instance, "merge,-/ .excl" would treat the contents of .excl as absolute-path excludes, while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make all their per-directory rules apply only on the sending side. If the merge rule specifies sides to affect (via the s or r mod- ifier or both), then the rules in the file must not specify sides (via a modifier or a rule prefix such as hide). a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where the dir-merge filter file was found. Here's an example filter file which you'd specify via --filter=". file": merge /home/user/.global-filter - *.gz dir-merge .rules + *.[ch] - *.o This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at the start of the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a per-directory filter file. All rules read in prior to the start of the directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash matches at the root of the transfer). If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the par- ent dirs from that starting point to the transfer directory for the indicated per-directory file. For instance, here is a common filter (see -F): --filter=': /.rsync-filter' That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all direc- tories from the root down through the parent directory of the transfer prior to the start of the normal directory scan of the file in the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer. (Note: for an rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".) Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files: rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and "/src" before the normal scan begins looking for the file in "/src/path" and its subdirectories. The last command avoids the par- ent-dir scan and only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in each directory that is a part of the transfer. If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns, you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the .cvsig- nore file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner. You can use this to affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C) option's inclusion of the per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules by putting all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather than at the end. This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the rules that follow the :C instead of being subservient to all your rules. To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of exclusions, the contents of$HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of  $CVSIG- NORE) you should omit the -C command-line option and instead insert a "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C".  ## LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE  You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above). The "current" list is either the global list of rules (if the rule is encountered while parsing the filter options) or a set of per-directory rules (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use this to clear out the parent's rules).  ## ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS  As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which are anchored at the merge-file's directory). If you think of the transfer as a subtree of names that are being sent from sender to receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated in the destination directory. This root governs where patterns that start with a / match. Because the matching is relative to the transfer-root, changing the trailing slash on a source path or changing your use of the --relative option affects the path you need to use in your matching (in addition to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination host). The following examples demonstrate this. Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an absolute path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz". Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer: Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest +/- pattern: /foo/bar (note missing "me") +/- pattern: /bar/baz (note missing "you") Target file: /dest/foo/bar Target file: /dest/bar/baz Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar (note full path) +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz (ditto)  ## PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE  Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the sending side, so you can feel free to exclude the merge files them- selves without affecting the transfer. To make this easy, the 'e' mod- ifier adds this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent com- mands: rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want some files to be excluded from being deleted, you'll need to be sure that the receiving side knows what files to exclude. The easiest way is to include the per-directory merge files in the transfer and use --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side gets all the same exclude rules as the sending side before it tries to delete anything: rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the com- mand line), or you'll need to maintain your own per-directory merge files on the receiving side. An example of the first is this (assume that the remote .rules files exclude themselves): rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules' --delete host:src/dir /dest In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are subservient to the rules merged from the .rules files because they were specified after the per-directory merge rule. In one final example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files to control what gets deleted on the receiving side. To do this we must specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't get deleted) and then put rules into the local files to control what else should not get deleted. Like one of these commands: rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \ host:src/dir /dest rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest  ## BATCH MODE  Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identi- To apply the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file, and the destination tree. Rsync updates the destination tree using the information stored in the batch file. For your convenience, a script file is also created when the write-batch option is used: it will be named the same as the batch file with ".sh" appended. This script file contains a command-line suitable for updating a destination tree using the associated batch file. It can be executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, option- ally passing in an alternate destination tree pathname which is then used instead of the original destination path. This is useful when the destination tree path on the current host differs from the one used to create the batch file. Examples:$ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
$scp foo* remote:$ ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/

$rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/$ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

In  these  examples,  rsync  is  used  to   update   /adest/dir/   from
/source/dir/  and the information to repeat this operation is stored in
"foo" and "foo.sh".  The host "remote" is then updated with the batched
data  going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between the
two examples reveals some of the flexibility you have in how  you  deal
with batches:

o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote  host  using
either  the  remote-shell  syntax  or  rsync  daemon  syntax, as
desired.

o      The first example uses the created  "foo.sh"  file  to  get  the
right  rsync  options when running the read-batch command on the
remote host.

o      The second example reads the batch data via  standard  input  so
that  the  batch  file  doesn't  need to be copied to the remote
machine first.  This example avoids the foo.sh script because it
needed to use a modified --read-batch option, but you could edit
the script file if you wished to make use of it  (just  be  sure
that  no  other  option is trying to use standard input, such as
the "--exclude-from=-" option).

(non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the destination tree.

The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as  new  as
the  one used to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an error
if the  protocol  version  in  the  batch  file  is  too  new  for  the
way to have the creating rsync generate a  batch  file  that  an  older
rsync can understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version
2.6.3, so mixing versions older than that with newer versions will  not
work.)

When  reading  a  batch  file,  rsync  will  force the value of certain
options to match the data in the batch file if you didn't set  them  to
the  same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and should)
be  changed.   For  instance  --write-batch  changes  to  --read-batch,
--files-from  is  dropped, and the --filter/--include/--exclude options
are not needed unless one of the --delete options is specified.

The  code  that  creates  the  BATCH.sh  file   transforms   any   fil-
ter/include/exclude  options  into  a single list that is appended as a
"here" document to the shell script file.  An  advanced  user  can  use
this  to  modify  the  exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by
--delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use
the  shell  script  as  an easy way to run the appropriate --read-batch
command for the batched data.

The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the  latest
version uses a new implementation.



       Three  basic  behaviors  are  possible when rsync encounters a symbolic

By default, symbolic links are  not  transferred  at  all.   A  message
"skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

If --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same tar-
get on the destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

their referent, rather than the symlink.

Rsync  can  also  distinguish  "safe"  and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An
example where this might be used is a web site mirror  that  wishes  to
ensure  that  the rsync module that is copied does not include symbolic
links to  /etc/passwd  in  the  public  section  of  the  site.   Using
--copy-unsafe-links  will cause any links to be copied as the file they
point to on the destination.   Using  --safe-links  will  cause  unsafe
for --safe-links to have any effect.)

Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe  sym-

Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.



## DIAGNOSTICS

       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little cryp-
tic. The one that seems to cause the most confusion is  "protocol  ver-
sion mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

This  message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell
facility producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync  is  using
for  its  transport.  The  way  to diagnose this problem is to run your
remote shell like this:

ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

then look at out.dat. If everything is working correctly  then  out.dat
should  be  a zero length file. If you are getting the above error from
rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains  some  text  or
data.  Look  at  the contents and try to work out what is producing it.
The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell  startup  scripts
(such  as  .cshrc  or  .profile)  that  contain  output  statements for

If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try  specify-
ing  the  -vv  option.   At this level of verbosity rsync will show why
each individual file is included or excluded.



## EXIT VALUES

       0      Success

1      Syntax or usage error

2      Protocol incompatibility

3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

4      Requested action not supported: an attempt was made  to  manipu-
late  64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them; or an
option was specified that is supported by the client and not  by
the server.

5      Error starting client-server protocol

21     Some error returned by waitpid()

22     Error allocating core memory buffers

23     Partial transfer due to error

24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection



## ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       CVSIGNORE
The  CVSIGNORE  environment variable supplements any ignore pat-
terns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more
details.

RSYNC_ICONV
Specify  a  default --iconv setting using this environment vari-
able. (First supported in 3.0.0.)

RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
Specify a non-zero numeric value if you want the  --protect-args
option  to  be  enabled by default, or a zero value to make sure
that it is disabled by default. (First supported in 3.1.0.)

RSYNC_RSH
The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you  to  override  the
default  shell  used  as  the transport for rsync.  Command line
options are permitted after the command name, just as in the  -e
option.

RSYNC_PROXY
The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
rsync client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync  dae-
mon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

run authenticated rsync connections to an rsync  daemon  without
user  intervention. Note that this does not supply a password to
a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to  do  that,
consult the remote shell's documentation.

USER or LOGNAME
The  USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine
the default username sent to an rsync  daemon.   If  neither  is
set, the username defaults to "nobody".

When transferring to  FAT  filesystems  rsync  may  re-sync  unmodified
files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

file  permissions,  devices,  etc.  are transferred as native numerical
values

Please report bugs! See the web site at http://rsync.samba.org/



## VERSION

       This man page is current for version 3.1.2 of rsync.



## INTERNAL OPTIONS

       The options --server and --sender are used  internally  by  rsync,  and
should  never  be  typed  by  a  user under normal circumstances.  Some
awareness of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such  as
when  setting  up  a  login  that  can  only run an rsync command.  For
instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an  exam-
ple  script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with a



## CREDITS

       rsync is distributed under the GNU General  Public  License.   See  the
file COPYING for details.

A  WEB site is available at http://rsync.samba.org/.  The site includes
an FAQ-O-Matic which may cover  questions  unanswered  by  this  manual
page.

The primary ftp site for rsync is ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync.

We  would  be  delighted  to  hear  from  you if you like this program.

This program uses the excellent zlib  compression  library  written  by



## THANKS

       Special  thanks  go  out  to: John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W.
Terpstra, David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian  Krahmer,  Martin  Pool,
and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz.

Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Roth-
well and David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my apologies if
I have.



## AUTHOR

       rsync  was  originally  written  by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.
Many people have later contributed to it.  It is  currently  maintained
by Wayne Davison.