Condenser means capacitor, an electronic component which stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field. The term condenser is actually obsolete but has stuck as the name for this type of microphone, which uses a capacitor to convert acoustical energy into electrical energy.
Condenser microphones require power from a battery or external source. The resulting audio signal is stronger signal than that from a dynamic. Condensers also tend to be more sensitive and responsive than dynamics, making them well-suited to capturing subtle nuances in a sound. They are not ideal for high-volume work, as their sensitivity makes them prone to distort.
How Condenser Microphones Work
A capacitor has two plates with a voltage between them. In the condenser mic, one of these plates is made of very light material and acts as the diaphragm. The diaphragm vibrates when struck by sound waves, changing the distance between the two plates and therefore changing the capacitance. Specifically, when the plates are closer together, capacitance increases and a charge current occurs. When the plates are further apart, capacitance decreases and a discharge current occurs.
A voltage is required across the capacitor for this to work. This voltage is supplied either by a battery in the mic or by external phantom power.
Cross-Section of a Typical Condenser Microphone
The Electret Condenser Microphone
The electret condenser mic uses a special type of capacitor which has a permanent voltage built in during manufacture. This is somewhat like a permanent magnet, in that it doesn't require any external power for operation. However good electret condenser mics usually include a pre-amplifier which does still require power.
Other than this difference, you can think of an electret condenser microphone as being the same as a normal condenser.
- Condenser microphones have a flatter frequency response than dynamics.
- A condenser mic works in much the same way as an electrostatic tweeter (although obviously in reverse).
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