Indian Head Test Pattern
This is the famous American black and white test pattern known as the "Indian Head". It was introduced by RCA in 1939 and became a popular icon in the 1940s. The Indian Head pattern was broadcast during during a station's downtime, i.e. after television stations had signed off and played the United States National Anthem. The pattern was also used in a similar way in Canada.
During the 1950s and 60s the Indian Head pattern was gradually phased out. At first it was shown for shorter periods of time, then eventually replaced by SMPTE Color Bars as color television was introduced.
These days, of course, broadcast test patterns have all but disappeared as most television stations broadcast programming or advertising 24 hours per day.